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Page 8 ",OS'r4GAZE1TE JAIURRI 5,20t O ":, . : Fundraiser Held M Honor of SCOTT BROWN Alfred Clemens, Senior Vice President of USB and his wife Gabrielle Caggiano Clemens, Vice President of Investments at USB, hosted a fundraiser event on December 17 at their home in Weston, MA for State Senator Scott Brown, Republican candidate for US Senate. Gabrielle Caggiano Clemens is a tax attorney and a certified financial advisor at USB. She is the youngest of four children of retired Boston attorney Bob Caggiano. Dante Alighieri Society President DR. SPENCER DI SCALA Invited to Rome On December 21, 2009, Spencer Di Scala, professor of history at the University of Massachusetts Boston and Presi- dent of the Dante Alighieri Society, participated in a sym- posium held in the Library of the Italian Senate in Rome for a recent book on the Red Brigades. Professor Alessandro Orsini of the University of Rome had previously presented his new work, L'Anatomia deUe Brigate Rosse, the book that was the subject of the presentation in the Italian Senate, at the Dante Alighieri Society's Pescosolido Cultural Center in Cambridge in November. Participating in the symposium with Professor Di Scala and the book's author were Professor Luciano Pellicani, who holds the Chair of Political Sociology at Rome's Free University (LUISS), and Professor Domenico Fisichella, Professor Emeritus at the University of Rome and former theoretician of the Alleanza Nazionale Party. The Vice Director of the Rome daily newspaper, //Riformista, Stefano Cappellini, moderated. The participants agreed with the author that the terrorism Red Brigades was heavily influenced by the teachings of Why Galileo Is So Important Today PART,, by Dr. Carlo Cipollone, Educational Director of the Italian Consulate Continued from January 8, 2010 edition Dr. Carlo Cipollone, the Educational Director of the Italian Consulate, presented the following article, Galileo's Educational Legacy, at a recent symposium at Harvard University. The event was in celebration of the 400  anniversary of the invention of the telescope. In 1616 Galileo was ad- monished by the Sacred Inquisition. The Church de- scribed his ideas as "false and contrary to scripture" and warned Galileo to revoke his theories. But Galileo per- sisted. In 1634, he once again defended the heliocen- tric theory in what would become his most famous work, "il Dialogo sopra i due Massimi Sistemi del Mondo" ("Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems"). He chose to write using urlgar Latin -- a precursor to modern Italian, a language accessible to University pro- fessors, researchers and stu- dents alike -- and in the form of a dialogue because he wanted to give voice to the advocates of both geocen- trism and heliocentrism, thus presenting a logical ar- gumentation for his science. As a result,, and despite the warm friendship and mutual respect that Galileo enjoyed with Pope Urban VIII, the Vatican deemed him a her- etic. Galileo was sentenced to spend the rest of his life under house arrest. In addition to his innova- tive theories and ground breaking points of view, Galileo humbly bowed to hu- man realism and reached a compromise between reli- gion and science. During the long and hard trial, after having exhausted every argument with the judges of the Sacred Inquisi- tion, Galileo arrived at a fi- nal decision. If his theory had been confirmed, he would have been condemned to the stake (as had been the fate of Giordano Bruno a few years before.) He therefore applied the principle of a "double truth," publicly dis- owning his convictions, while remaining privately the now-defunct Italian Communist Party, even if that and intimately convinced of party's leaders denied any links and emphasized their the-truth in his theories. opposition to the terrorism of the "Years of Lead., Professor Di Scala argued that the originality of Orsini's book was not the author's discussion of the ideology of the leaders of the Red Brigades, but the division of the Brigades into "cells," his analysis of the character of those cells, and the contention that the mentality of the "Brigatisti," not social and political conditions, were the root causes of the terrorism that afflicted Italy between the 1970s and the early 1980s. FOR ALL YOUR INSURANCE NEEDS Galileo's declaration had a grave effect on Italian and European science. For ex- ample, the philosopher Descartes, after hearing Galileo's recantation, swore he would bum all of Galileo's published papers. The truth of Galileo's con- victions, however, are found written in his own hand in a book he had retained dur- ing his house arrest. In the i% AUTO * HOMEOWNERS * TENANTS LIFE * HEALTH * BUSINESS GROUP Experience makes the difference WE PROMISE TO MEET OR IMPROVE YOUR PRESENT POLICY COVERAGE AT AFFORDABLE RATES CALL TODAY FOR YOUR QUOTE 617-523-3456 1 Longfellow - Place Suite 2322 - Boston, MA 02114 margins of this work one reads: "Science produces in- novations, but the innova- tions are powerful and can ruin the republic, therefore those who have the power, and are extremely ignorant of every science, are the ones that appoint judges and subdue intellectuals." Galileo knew that his con- temporaries were not ready to accept such a radical claim as heliocentrism. He confirmed, "We cannot teach people anything. We can only help them discover it within themselves." His adoption of a "double truth" sought to avoid internal conflict and to allow time for the Church and society to discover on their own the truth within his scientific reasoning. Over time, the value of Galileo's theories has been recognized as irrefutable among many groups who had originally been critical of his studies. In 1835, almost 200 years after its original publication, the "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems" was removed from the Vatican's list of banned books. After another 150 years, the Church sur- rendered its rejection of Galileo's views of the solar system and deemed them correct. Nevertheless, the valuable studies resulting from Galileo's thoughts are above all the basis of modern sci- ence today. Suffice to say these studies may be called the "free research" of every- thing that followed. And the effects are count- less. He examined nature to find answers to phenomena via experimentations. Only then would he give scientific value to these answers by means of a mathematical model. As the first modern physicist, Galileo offered important contributions to the study of dynamics. In the "Dialogues" one can find clear expressions of the con- cepts of the "infinite" and of "infinitism." These concepts were to become the basis of differential calculus, which did not exist during that cen- tury. The studies of as- tronomy and science have both advanced since Galileo's time, but his idea that we are not at the center of the uni- verse remains itself central. Today we can see the in- fluences of Galileo's avant- garde thought process and notice the path that they have paved for current inno- vative thinkers and scien- tists alike. Many examples of Galileo's legacy still live on. Some of which directly affect the way we observe space and we will be able to discover gradually, thanks to the strength of the Hubble and Herschel telescopes, which observe the infinity of the universe. Another pertinent example is the "Galileo" sys- tem, a global satellite system of civil navigation developed in Europe as an alternative to GPS, thanks to the Telespazio Space Center of Fucino, Abruzzo. Another project that car- ries his name today is the Galileo Program, whose ob- jective is to develop scientific exchanges and technologies of excellence among the re- search laboratories of Italy and France. Through this program, many hope to in- crease environmental pro- tection, the improvement of the quality of life, protection of cultural heritage, the de- velopment of innovative technologies, etc. In conclusion, Galileo surely was a man "before his time." He said, "Facts, which at first seem improbable will, even on scant explanation, drop the cloak which has hid- den them and stand forth in naked and simple beauty." His discoveries teach us that anything is possible, and that the possibilities are as infi- nite as outer space, but also as infinite as what is hidden within each of us. And that is the answer to Ashley's question." Why Galileo is so important today?