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January 17, 2014

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Page 2 POST-GAZETTE, JANUARY 17, 2014 Stir00 by Prof. Edmund Turiello Nostra Aweeklycolumnhighlightingsome o/the more interesting aspects of our ancestry.., our lineage.., our roots. This week we continue with our series on those great literary Latin's. In previous columns, we divided all of Roman literati into four gen- eral categories namely: I. The Early Age, 2. The Golden Age, 3. The Silver Age and 4. The Later Empire. We noted that in the Early Age there was Andronicus Livius, a group called the Scipionic Circle and Cato the Elder. During the last two issues we discussed Andronicus Livius and also the Scipionic Circle. This week we examine Cato the Elder, the last celebrity in the Early Age. His full name was Marcus Porcius Cato; he was bom in Tusculum and throughout his life he remained inter- ested in the simple Roman life-style. He became con- cerned with Pythagore and philosophy at an early age. The principal beliefs and opinions held by this system were: 1. The passing from an earthly body into a soul at death, and 2. The belief in numbers as the key to universal understanding and solutions. Cato left his home- town and went to Rome with nothing more than a good knowledge of Roman law, and fluency in elocution. His military career started with the rank of "Tribune" (officer), and then within a relatively short time he was promoted to "Quaestor" (trea- sury officer), "aedile" (civil officer), "Praetor" (magis- trate), "consul" (high magis- trate), "censor" (census taker and guardian of public morals) and lastly, ambassa- dor to Carthage. He died about a year after his return from this last mission, in the eighty-fifth year of his life. CATO THE ELDER Cato the Elder Cato's literary labors include a 162 chapter trea- tise on the rules of agricul- ture, recipes of baking, and winemaking processes. It was loosely put together, and obviously intended for his own family use. It is simple, sometimes rude, but con- firms our notions of the se- vere manners of its author and the character of the ancient Romans. He also left 150 orations and a book on military dis- cipline. During his final years he prepared seven books entitled "De Origini- bus," and completed the last one just before his death. In these books he began an inquiry into the history, antiquities, and language of the Roman people with a view toward counteracting the Scipionic influence. This work also contained an account of the exploits of the kings of Rome, and attempted to establish the time of the foundation of Rome itself. It also exam- ined the origin of the differ- ent Italian states, and gave a history of the First and Second Punic Wars. De Originibus was evi- dently the result of a great amount of scholarly activity and had it been preserved, it would have given us much valuable information about early Roman history. Cato also appears to be the first Roman who wrote on the subject of medicine. He included foods that were recommended for the sick and ancient remedies from herbs. In retrospect we find that the Early Age of Roman literati or as it is sometimes called "The Age of Greek Influence" gives us Androni- cus Livius, the founder of Roman dramatic and epic poetry and the translator of Homer's "Odyssey" into Latin verse. It also gives us the Scipionic Circle, a literary and philosophical group composed of men like Scipio the Younger, a great student of literature, Polybius, the Greek historian who re- corded the rise of Roman supremacy, Panaetius of Rhodes, the stoic philoso- pher who furnished inspira- tion for many of Cicero's ora- tions, Terence, who left a marked influence on Roman dramatic literature, Lucilius, who was the creator of Roman satire, and Cato the Elder. This last named Cato, is noted for the first history of Rome in Latin which unfortunately has not been preserved, for being probably the first Roman to write good Latin prose and for his only surviving work "De Re Rustica" which is a valuable information source on ancient Roman customs. NEXT ISSUE: Lucretius What's Cooking at Lucia's? Lucia's Ristorante Italian Cooking Series continues with Chef Donato and Chef Pino. Join them for an evening of family recipes revealed. Chef Donato will teach you how to make Mama Lucia's traditional Italian lasagna and much more. Learn the secrets of perfect pasta, sauce and pairings. Class lesson will include Mama Lucia's Lasagna, Pasta al Forno and Maccheroni Chittara. Class is Wednesday, January 29 th from 6:30-9:30pm at Lucia's Winchester location, 13 Mt. Vernon Street, Winchester. Note- books, recipes and aprons are provided. Class will conclude with a family-style feast. Our classes are always interactive with ample time to ask questions. For further information or to reserve your space in the kitchen, email stacey, sawyer, f NOBILE INSURANCE ALBANO F. PONTE, CEP Financial and Estate Planning Email afponte @ Phone 617-320-0022 MICHAEL F. NOBILE, CPCU mnobile @ BOSTON 30 Prince Street Boston, MA 02113 (617) 523-6766 Fax (617) 523-0078 MEDFORD 39 Salem Street Medford, MA 02155 (781) 395-4200 Fax (781) 391-8493 J ST. JUDE AND ST, ANTHONY NOVENA May the Sacred Heart of Jesus be adored, glorified, loved and preserved throughout the world now and for- ever. Sacred Heart of Jesus pray for us. St. Jude, worker of miracles, pray for us. St. Jude, help of the hopeless, pray for us. St. Anthony, most loving protector and wonder worker, pray for us. Say this prayer 9 times a day and by the 8th day your prayer will be answered. It has never been known to fail. Publication must be promised. My prayers have been answered. Favor received. A.T.P. Small Ads Get BIG Results For more information call 617-227-8929 Res Publica by David ThJmbull Honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Monday, January 20, 2014, will mark the Rev. Dr. Max- tin Luther King, Jr., federal holiday. This leader in the movement for civil rights for African-Americans is one of three men honored with a federal holiday. Christmas Day, in a reli- gious sense honors Jesus of Nazareth, a man, but as a federal holiday, in a repub- lic with no established church, it is probably more correct to view it as a desig- nated holiday due to the fact that most federal employees observe the day and it is simply not practical to have it as a regular work day. Even so, it was not always thus. Christmas was not des- ignated a federal holiday until 1870, and then only for federal employees in Wash- ington D.C. The holiday did not apply to all federal em- ployees until 1968. According to the official government website for Mar- tin Luther King, Jr. Day,, "After a long struggle, legislation was signed in 1983 creating a federal holiday marking the birthday of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." Well, if we consider the time from the arrival of the first slaves in the Virginia Colony in 1619 to the achievement of full civil rights for all African- Americans in every one of the 50 states in the 1960s, it was a "long struggle." And while not dismissing the labors of those who struggled to have Martin Luther King, Jr. Day designated in federal law, 15 years from his assassination to signing the act was not a "long" struggle. A struggle yes, but not long, considering that there was opposition. It took 150 years, from the adoption of our Constitution in 1787 to 1937 before the federal government honored the memory and deeds of Christopher Columbus, dis- coverer of America, with a federal holiday. Our first, and most say greatest, Presi- dent, George Washington, was dead 80 years before a federal holiday was desig- nated to honor him. That applied only to government workers in the District of Columbia. It was not until 1885 that all federal workers got Washington's Birthday off. Abraham Lincoln, the Great Emancipator and sav- ior of the Union, is not, even now 149 years after his death, honored with a fed- eral holiday. The third Mon- day in February is, colloqui- ally referred to as "Presi- dents Day" to honor both Washington and Lincoln, whose birthdays fall near that day, but it is officially "Washington's Birthday." As stated above, it has taken nearly the entire his- tory of European settlement in North America to bring about legal equality between the races. The modern Afri- can-American Civil Rights Movement that Dr. King was so important a leader in, on the other hand, was, for a major societal and legal change, relatively swift. It is generally considered to occupy the period from 1955 (Rosa Parks and the Mont- gomery Bus Boycott) to 1968 (King assassination and the Poor People's March). It was a struggle, one of the greatest Americans have ever undertook internally. To those in the struggle it was long. But looking back, from 1955 to 1983, not quite 30 years, is, roughly, a gen- eration. In one generation we advanced from a nation that tolerated legal discrimi- nation against part of our citizenry based on the color of their skin, to a nation in which such as thing is not only forbidden, but absolutely unthinkable. It was Dr. King, more than any other single leader in the civil rights movement, who, with his insistence on non-violence, and his prophet-like call to the conscience of White American, who brought about such a marvelous and much needed change. That is why he is up there with Columbus and Wash- ington as a man who so in- fluenced our nation that we honor them with a federal holiday. Boston Harborside Home Joseph A. Langone 580 Commercial St. - Boston, MA 02109 617-536-4110 Augustave M. Sabia, Jr. Trevor Slauenwhite Frederick J. Wobrock Dino C. Manca Courtney A. Fitzgibbons @ A Service Family Affiliate of AFFS/Service Corporation International 206 Winter St., Fall River, MA 02720 Telephone 508-676-2454 J