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January 27, 2012

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Page 8 POST-GAZETTE, JANUARY 27, 2012 The Roman, Julian and Gregorian Calendars NEWS " BRIEFS by James DtPrima (FROM IT Italians can be very proud of many (Februarius) to the ten months thus   NEWSPERS AND innovations, in art, literature, architecture, increasing the length of the year to 355 days.  !i OTHER PLICATIONS) government and many more influences this There existed in Rome at that time a country, shaped as a boot and seeming to college of pontiffs (from pontifex or "bridge Compiled byrazio Z, Buttafuoco be ready to kick the island of Sicily, had on maker") who played a big part in regulating the world. One such innovation that has the calendar festivities. Caesar was known A STEM CELL BANK IN MASSACHUSETTS! It is the first bank in the United States where stern cells, from amniotic fluids, will be stored. This 'Bio-cell Center', the second in the world, was recently inaugurated at Med-ford, Massa- chusetts, in an area which is at the vanguard worldwide in Biotechnology. The laboratory of the Bio-cell Center Corporation has a strong position in the field mainly thanks to the Italian experience and research in the field, particularly in cryo- conservation of the stem cells extracted by amniocentesis, a method of the scientific director Giuseppe Simoni after decades of studies. Simoni was a professor of Genetics un- til two years ago (2008) at the University of Milano. The bio-cell center has reached an agreement with the Harvard school of Ophthalmology for a pilot study on the use of stem cells derived from the amniotic fluids, in the treatment of retina degeneration. The stem cells center hopes to reach an agreement also with the Boston Children Hospital, which has already used stem cells from amniotic fluids in repairing the trachea and hernia in the diaphragm of animals. The first bio-cell center started at Busto Arsizio, in the Lombardia Region (province of Varese). The Center inau- gurated in Medford is a branch of the main center in Lombardia. The Italian method has been introduced in the United States right from Busto Arsizio. The cryo-conserva- tion, at 196 degrees below zero, is massed on the notion that the stem cells extracted from the amniotic fluid, between the 15 a and the 20  week of gestation, frozen and then defrosted will lose none of their characteristics. It is enough to have 3 cm. cube of amniotic fluid, usually d{s- carded, to assure a healthy life to the children. In a con- tainer of 3cm.cube of amniotic fluid there are 20-30,000 cells, young and quite active, capable of reproducing them- selves up to 250 times, without suffering variations in a variety of tissues. The stem cells extracted from the um- bilical cord are instead differentiated into hematopoietic cells that have a low proliferation rate, twice at mostl The researchers feel that soon there will be the first clinical trials on man, perhaps in a couple of years. The stem cells from the amniotic fluid possess he advantage of a DNA more stable and devoid of ethical problems. The cryo-pres- ervation of the stem cells extracted from the amniotic fluid can last 19 years, when the agreement on the control of the stem cells goes from the father to the son, when adult! The cost of the cryo-preservation is 900 euro in Italy, about $1,300 in the USA, plus an annual fee for the preservation. THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF EMIGRATION INAUGU- RATED BY THE ITALIAN PRESIDENT, GIORGIO NAPOLITANO. Twenty nine million of Italians left Italy from the year 1800 in search of a job and a better life. The Italian President recently inaugurated the Museum in Rome, at the Vittoriano (the monument complex to King Victor Emmanuel the Second). There were, among the multi- medical records, 380 people with name 'Napolitano (as the President), 119 Bondi, 14 Fini (as Gianfranco Fini, the Speaker of the Chamber), 15 Mantica (prominent Govern- ment officer) and others having the same name as several attending Government officials. As some of the speakers pointed out, it is the story which many Italians ignore. The tragic experience lived by Italian emigrants has been e:xperienced by those who now try to enter }taly for a better "0 J USTINE YANDLE PHOTOGRAPHY 781.589.7347 JUSTINE.YANDLE@GMAIL.COM WW.J USTINEYANDLEPH OTOGRAPHY. COM Real Estate Matt6o Gallo Appraisals Sales & Rentals 376 North Street Boston, MA 02113 . (617) 523-2100 Fax (617) 523-3530 been accepted by all is the calendar, as Pontifex Maximus. They would add days Calendars provide us a means of keeping to coincide with the lunar and solar years. track of the past as well as the future and to These priests were not always willing to remind us of dates that are important to make changes but politics was ever present all. Or as some have said "... calendars serve for they could manipulate the calendar to as a link between mankind and the satisfy special interests. For example the cosmos." So let us take a look back. The tenure of a person holding a high office could ancient Egyptians, besides building those be extended or shortened. Pending legisla- magnificent pyramids, spent some time tion could be given more or less time prior realizing "that a year was divided seasonally to a vote. In 59 BC, Caesar's co-council Bibu- and could be measured from the shortest lus attempted to defeat a piece of legislation day of the year to the next occurrence of proposed by his colleagues by declaring the the shortest day." Their calendar was remaining days of the year to be holidays so composed of 365 days and was divided into the assembly could not legally meet. three seasons' winter, spring and summer, In 45 BCE (Before Common Era) Julius consisting of four months each. If the Caesar introduced the Julian calendar. Egyptian calendar were in use today, Caesar called upon the astronomer January, February, and March would be S0signenes, from Alexandria and consulted Thoth. Tybi and Pachons. with him on developing a calendar that did The Roman calendar has been attributed away with the Roman version and create a to Romulus, the first king of Rome, around calendar that was a regulated civil calendar 753 BCE. It was based on the cycles of the that was based by the sun. This was done moon and the agricultural year. It began in by adding ten days to the pre-Julian Roman March (Martius) in the spring and ended in year of 355 days thus creating the 365 days December with the autumn planting. Thus of the Julian calendar. They were distributed the year was ten months long, 304 days, and by adding two extra days to the months of consisted of six months with thirty days and January, August and December and one four with thirty one. Due to no work being extra day to April, June, September and done in the fields the two months of winter November. A leap day was added to February were not counted, every four years. This makes the Julian calendar year 365.25 days long. Romulus Calendar The Julian calendar was used as a civil 1. Martius 31 days calendar but it was replaced with the 2. Aprilis 30 days Gregorian calendar, introduced by Pope 3. Maius 31 days Gregory XII in 1582. The Julian calendar it 4. Lunius 30 days turns out was 11 minutes to long and as 5. Quintilis 31 days result added one day every 128 years. Thus 6. Sextilis 30 days by the mid sixteenth century this would 7. September 30 days come to about 10 days. The result of this 8. October 31 days would have been that the vernal equinox 9. November 30 days (spring), by which the church determined 10. December 30 days Easter, would not fall on March 21 the traditional date, but ten days earlier. In The Roman calendar numbering system addition, Pope Gregory's calendar changed for the days of the month consisted of the Julian calendar's cycle that now set a dividing the months into day markers that leap year as one that is divisible by four, began at the start of the month, the fifth or included in this are the centurial years. As the seventh day and in the middle of the an example, "Every year that is exactly month. These were called calends, nones divisible by 4 is a leap year, except for years and ides. The word calendar comes from the that are divisible by 100; the centurial word calends. (century) years that are exactly divisible by Calends (Kalendae-from the Greek to 400 are still leap years. For example, the announce) noted the start of the new moon year 1900 is not a leap year; the year 2000 cycle and was always the first day of the is a leap year. The Gregorian calendar is in month. The Nones (Nonae) was the day of use today by most countries and has become the half moon occurring eight days prior to the international calendar. the ides. The ides takes place on the thirteen day in eight of the months but on The naming of the months of the year in the fifteenth day in March, May, July and the Gregorian calendar: October. It was believed to be days of a full January ...... Janus, (Roman god of gates, moon. The days were noted as to how many doorways, beginnings and days it was before the calends, nones or endings) ides. So that the March 11 would be known February ..... Februus (Etruscan god of to the Romans as "Five ides because it was death) four days before the ides of March (March March ......... Mars (Roman god of war) 15, known as the ides of March, the day May ............. May (Maia Maiestas (Roman Julius Caesar was assinated), goddess) June ........... Juno (Roman goddess, wife of  Jupiter) i   -;= July ............. Julius Caesar (Roman dictator, . , . , ,  " " was quintilis, Roman fifth ....  ' month) ...... ,,, August Augustus (first Roman " : '' i,.- , " ....... g"  ':  =' ' *" " ....  " emperor, was sextilis, Roman '* ['  ': sixth month) Hlc .vcei ,oaT,* writ,  . , i ..... September.. Septum (Latin for seven, was "*=  "* .... " *ili ''* ' ' .... " sextilis, Roman seven month) "=' o[ ,',*l;ilo trt''''i': ', "  October ....... RomanOCt (Latineighthfor month)eighth' was ri  ': November Novem (Latin for nine, was c c c i; " "'" c c ic i,-'.  xy, x xxxi xxx xxa!xxx xxx .vx-- x xx' Roman ninth month) The Roman Calendar December... Decem (Latin for ten, was Roman tenth month) It was soon found that the 304 day Roman calendar was not working because, as they As we go through the year we tend not to discovered it was not aligned with the think about the influence that Italian seasons. King Numa Pompilius (715-673 BC), history plays in our lives until we reflect the second king of Rome, changed the upon the months of the year and realize that calendar about 700 BC by adding the months it is with us all year long. of January (lanuarius) and February To all HAPPY NEW YEAR! ......... WWW.BOSTON POSTGAZETTE.COM I !1 m gllllllll]lll  i,Eli i iilrll,!ll illillffillllll, , .............. =