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February 17, 2012     Post-Gazette
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February 17, 2012

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Page2 POST-GAZETTE, FEBRUARY 17, 2012 Stirpe by Prof. Edmuncl Turiello Nostra of the more interesting aspects of our ancestry.., our lineage.., our roots. THE THREE R'S DURING ANCIENT TIMES The matter of education during very early times was generally of private con- cern. In ancient Sparta, how- ever, it was supervised by the communities. As soon as a Spartan child was born, a committee of elders decided whether he or she should live or be exposed (aban- doned and left to die). If the child was weak-looking or deformed it was exposed on a nearby mountain side. A healthy male child was left to the care of his parents until his seventh year. He was then transported to a department of education where he joined a troop of other youths his same age. Troop leaders were older youths who came up through the ranks; they were respon- sible for instructing the youngsters in their exer- cises. These exercises were planned to suit the various ages of the children and usu- ally consisted of wrestling, leaping, running, spear throwing, discus tossing, and dancing. Reading and writing were under the di- rection of tutors, but music and singing were part of their regular instruction. Rigid discipline was intended to strengthen or harden these Spartan youths. They usually went barefoot, bare headed, wore light clothing, and had short haircuts. Those who were twelve years and older wore nothing but a tunic type garment, which had to last them for a full year. Each troop slept in a common room, on beds of straw, and with no roof above. Food was very plain or simple; hardly enough to satisfy their hunger. Boys who stole food and were caught at it were punished. Those who stole in a clever manner were praised, i Every year the boys were required to undergo a flog- ging at the altar of Artemis, their patron goddess. This punishment was designed to test their power to endure bodily pain. The flogging continued until blood was drawn. It was considered to be disgrace to show any sign of suffering. Much of their education was also gained in their daily public life, and in their conversations with men who were looked upon as seniors, instructors, and superiors. The Spartan youth behaved with great modesty and respect towards his eiders. Every mature man chose a youth as his favorite, and set an example of manly excellence for him. The elder was also respon- sible and punishable for any delinquency of the youth. The young male was consid- ered to be a child up to the age of eighteen. From eigh- teen to twenty-one he was known as a youth, and at age thirty he was considered to be a man. NEXT WEEK: Ancient Education Continued Boston City Councilor Sal LaMattina Running for Probate Post Boston City Councilor Salvatore LaMattina who represents District 1 which includes the North End, East Boston and Charlestown said on February 13 that he will be seeking the post of Suffolk County Register of Probate. Said LaMattina, "To be honest with you, I like running a department. I'm excited. We just took out papers. We're talking to people. Meeting with voters." LaMattina was first elected as District 1 coun- by Sal Giarratani K300Nec h Lic #017936 anical Heating & Air Conditioning Sales, Service & Installation Ken Shallow 617.593.6211 INCOME TAX PREPARATION Financial Services Professional Tax Consultant Personal & Business Year Round Service M.P. & Co. TAX & FINANCIAL SERVICES GRACE PREVITE MAGOON, EA 617-569-0175 146 Maverick Street, East Boston, MA 02128 ESTABLISHED IN 1938 e-mail: # cilor in 2006 and prior to that worked in the city's Transportation Department where he was a manager. In early 2011, Governor Deval Patrick appointed an acting register for the probate de- partment after the previous register Richard lannella resigned from the post in January 2011. lannella had also been a Boston City Councilor before moving to the county post. The Register of Probate oversees the day to day operation of the county's probate court. The election will be in November with a preliminary election in September. LaMattina is expected to formally announce for the post soon. If he were to win the seat, his District 1 seat which is up in 2013 will be filled by a special election sometime in early 2013 ac- cording to Council President Steven J. Murphy. Already a number of likely contenders are being men- tioned for that Council seat. Many of the names are from East Boston the larg- est neighborhood in the dis- trict and some are even mentioning Danny Ryan from Charlestown who gave LaMattina a good race five years ago. Ryan works in US Rep. Michael Capuano's Office. I DIAMONDS 1 ROLEX ESTATE JEWELRY Bought & Sold JeweLers Exch. Bldg. Jim (617) 263-7766 Res Publica by David TrumbuU The Wisdom from Washington Wednesday is the 2804 anniversary of the birth of George Washington. Since 1971, Washington's Birthday has been observed, as a public holiday on the third Monday in February. The day is com- monly called "Presidents' Day," but the legal name remains, "Washington's Birthday." "First in war -- first in peace -- and first in the hearts of his countrymen, he was second to none in the humble and endur- ing scenes of private life; pious, just, humane, temperate, and sincere; uniform, dignified, and com- manding, his example was as edifying to all around him as were the effects of that example lasting. To his equals he was condescending, to his inferiors kind, and to the dear object of his affections exemplarily tender; correct throughout, vice shud- dered in his presence, and virtue always felt his fostering hand; the purity of his private character gave effulgence to his public virtues. His last scene comported with the whole tenor of his life although in extreme pain, not a sigh. not a groan escaped him; and with undisturbed serenity he closed his well-spent life. Such was the man America has lost such was the man for whom our nation mourns." -- Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee We could do no better, in reflecting on the life and influ- ence of President Washington, than to consult his 1796 Farewell Address to the nation written as he prepared to retire from public life. It was almost immediately reprinted in newspapers across the country and later in pamphlet form. In the address Washington argues that the Union of the States "ought to be considered as a main prop of your liberty: and that "there will always be reason to distrust the patrio- tism of those who in any quarter may endeavor to weaken its bands." He warns against sectionalism: North versus South, or Atlantic versus West. He praises the Constitu- tion, which he declares, "improved upon [the Articles of Confederation]" and "better calculated than [the Articles] for an intimate union." The Constitution, he says, "till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all." As every schoolboy knows, he then goes on to warn against factions and "the baneful effects of the spirit of party generally." Washington stresses the need for religion and morality if the republic is to be preserved. And he exhorts to maintain good public credit and to be careful with regard to public debt "not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burden which we ourselves ought to bear." Finally Washington warns against foreign alliances. The full text of the Address is available at libraries and online. It's just a pity someone can't feed it into President Obama's teleprompter! DIVORCE CRIMINAL * 230 MSGR. O'BRIEN HIGHWAY LAW OFFICES OF FRANK J. CIANO GENERAL PRACTICE OF LA W WILLS * ESTATE PLANNING . TRUSTS PERSONAL INJURY * WORKERSCOMP. 617-354-9400 Si Parla Italiano CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02141 WARD3 DEMOCRATS TO HOLD CAUCUS Registered Democrats in Ward 3 of Boston will hold a caucus at the Nazzaro Community Center, (30 North Bennett Street) on SATURDAY, FEBRUARY, 18, 2012 at 10:30 AM to elect del- egates to the 2012 Massachusetts Democratic Convention. Registration will begin at 10:00 AM. The Convention will be held on Saturday, June 2 "d at the Mass Mutual Center in Springfield. Democrats from across the Commonwealth will gather during that day to endorse a candidate for United State Senate. The caucus is open to all registered Democrats in Ward Three. For .... caucus information please contact Ward Chairman Jason A. Aluia at WardThreeDem @ or call 617-447-4987.