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Page2 POST-GAZETTE, FEBRUARY 24, 2012 Stir ep_e_ by Prof. Edmund Turiello Nostra of the more interesting aspects of our ancestry.., our lineage.., our roots. ANCIENT EDUCATION The early Roman educa- tional system paralleled that of the Greeks. There is no doubt that this strong influ- ence was brought about be- cause of the great numbers of highly educated Greeks who were captured, trans- ported to Rome, and used as tutors for the upper classes of Roman youths. A basic un- derstanding of the Greek system, therefore, is neces- sary for an understanding of the ancient Roman system. In Greece. the father de- cided whether his newborn child should be permitted to live, or to be exposed (aban- doned and left to die). When a boy was born into a house- hold. the door of the home was decorated with olive branches if the child was a girl. then wool was used. On the fifth or seventh day after birth, the child was touched with instruments of purifica- tion and then carried several times around a burning hearth. The tenth day after birth marked the festival of naming the child: followed by a sacrifice, and entertain- ment. This is when the fa- ther acknowledged it to be his legitimate child. Boys and girls were co-edu- cated up to the age of six, following which time the sexes were educated sepa- rately. The girl's life was al- most entirely confined to her home. Mothers tutored their daughters in the domestic arts of sewing, spinning etc., but there was hardly any scholarly instruction. A boy was generally entrusted to a "paedagogus" or slave, who was older, and who attended to the youngster until his boyhood was over. The child was conducted everywhere ... to school, the gymnasium, etc. The slave carried the books, tablets, and any other school supplies. The daily school session began in the early morning and ended at sunset, with a mid-day break for lunch. Athenian laws made provi- sion for the proper education of boys. Every citizen was obliged to have his son schooled in reading, writing, arithmetic, music, and gym- nastics. Parents were also obliged by law to teach their boys a profitable trade in the event of an inadequate in- heritance. Failure to provide for a trade was cause for for- feiture of any claim for sup- port by the father during his old age. Although schools were pri- vately operated, they were still kept under close scru- tiny by the police. Elemen- tary instruction was given by writing on tablets for stu- dents to copy. Textbooks were selected for their influ- ence upon the student's character, and the poems of Homer were, of course, the favorite. Students were re- quired to copy suitable pas- sages, then learn them by heart, and then repeat them aloud. Mathematics and drawing were introduced into the schools during the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. respectively. Music in- struction began at the age of twelve or thirteen with the lyre and flute being the two favorite instruments. The aim of Greek educa- tion was intended to be a harmonious development of the mind along with that of the body, consequently, gymnastic instruction pro- gressed hand in hand with all other learning. After at- taining the age of twenty, Athenian youths were con- sidered capable of bearing arms and were therefore available for frontier service. At this age they became eli- gible for foreign service and also the right to vote in the public assemblies. NEXT WEEK: The Three R's in Old Rome North End Historical Society Upcoming Events Please join us on Tuesday, February 28 at 6:00 pm for a free Family History Event at the Old North Church Par- ish House, 193 Salem Street, First Floor, North End, Boston. Melissa Mannon, M.S.. will speak about caring for your family's valuable infor- mational materials. Mannon will sign copies of her The Unofficial Family Archivist: A Guide to Creating and Main- mining Family Papers. Photo- graphs, and Memorabilia. She will discuss the basics about avoiding factors that can harm or destroy your materials; the best ways to ensure that your family his- tory is documented and maintained for future gen- erations; options for duplication, digitization and conservation of cherished family items: and consider- ing your family's role in a wider community history. Mannon is the proprietor of ArchivesInfo.com and is an archivist and cultural heri- tage consultant with 20 years of experience. This event is free and open to the public, but res- ervations are required be- cause space is limited. Email us at www.north endboston.org or call 617-680- 3829 to RSVP. If you would like to renew or buy a membership, please visit our website. If you haven't already, please become a fan on Facebook at Facebook.com/ NorthEndHistory. On March 29. 6:00 pm., at Sacred Heart Church Hall, INCOME TAX PREPARATION Financial Services Professional Tax Consultant Personal & Business Year Round Service M.P. & Co. TAX & FINANCIAL SERVICES GRACE PREVITE MAGOON, EA 617-569-0175 146 Maverick Street, East Boston, MA 02128 ESTABLISHED IN 1938 e-mail: gmagoon@aol.com Lori Rogers-Stokes, Ph.D.. a public historian and a member of the Board of Di- rectors of the Arlington His- torical Society, will discuss Arlington's role as a watch post along the spy road from Boston to the Provincial Con- gress in Concord. She will also elaborate on the mood of the countryside at the time of the Revolution and the partnership between the town of Boston and neighbor- ing communities. This event is cosponsored by the Arlington Historical Society, founded 1897. Remember Your Loved Ones The Post-Gazette accepts memorials throughout the year Please call 61 7-227-8929 Res Publica by David Trumbull Sen. Brown Calls for Protection of Religious Liberty u.s. Senator Scott Brown (Republican, Massachusetts) has issued the following statement on the Department of Health and Human Services mandate under the 2010 health care law that religious organizations either participate in health care plans that violate their religious beliefs or face punitive fines: "One of our most cherished liberties is freedom of religion. Like Ted Kennedy before me, I support a conscience exemp- tion for religious organizations in health care. No one should be forced by government to violate the teachings of their faith. I encourage President Obama to re-examine his health care law and make sure no one is being forced to do something that is contrary to their religious beliefs." Recently The Pilot, the official newspaper of the Archdio- cese of Boston reported that Cardinal Timothy M. Dolan of New York said that President Barack Obama's revision to the contraceptive mandate in the health reform law did nothing to change the U.S. bishops' opposition to what they regard as an unconstitutional infringement on reli- gious liberty. The Obama Administration has posted a set of false and misleading claims that the President has compromised with the Catholic Church. The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops has responded, pointing out that The original rule that violated our religious liberty so severely has not been changed, but finalized. HHS has promised some kind of "accommodation." but only after the election. The promised "accommodation" -- even at its best would still force our institutions to violate their beliefs. There is no exemption for objecting insurers, secular employers, for-profit religious employers, or individuals. Speaking of the Obama Administration's attack on the Catholic Church, Cardinal Dolan said: "Never before has the federal government forced individuals and organiza- tions to go out into the marketplace and buy a product that violates their conscience. This shouldn't happen in a land where free exercise of religion ranks first in the Bill of Rights." Cardinal Dolan also said that some very prominent attor- neys, some of them non-Catholic and even nonreligious, had already volunteered to represent the bishops. This is the central issue. If Obama can force Catholic hospitals to pay for something they believe to be morally impermissible, then any President, liberal or conservative, can force any- one to do anything he wants. Liberals who think this through should be as afraid of the precedent as are conservatives. Now it sits with Congress and the Courts to thwart the President's power grab. Will they act to protect freedom of religion in America? Or will our children and grandchil- dren see come to pass the prediction of Francis Cardinal George, Archbishop of Chicago? Cardinal George, in 2010. said: "I expect to die in bed, my successor will die in prison and his successor will die a martyr in the public square." ', A__ Spec,a:00edcorrec,,.ecolor Ii IIIW::, ! $25.00 OFF ' ,. YOUR NEXT HA RCUT COLOR or %latural! ,-. r"  KERATIN TREATMENT Co[';;in, _  (This offer may not be combtned I qvtaEeover with any other  51 REVERE ST./HARVARD m I .. "0" " 1 S offers or coupons) ....... I " I .J i WINTHROP, WIAU O j I 978.327.8147 JOPINO SALON WWW.HAIRBYJOPINO.COM The Agency for all your Insurance Coverages Richard Settipane AUTO HOMEOWNERS TENANTS COMMERCIAL Experience makes the difference SPECIALIST in RESTAURANT and BUSINESS POLICIES CALL TODAY FOR YOUR QUOTE 617-523-3456 - Fax 617-723-9212 1 Longfellow - Place Suite 2322 - Boston, MA 02114 Conveniently located with Free Parking Fedem! 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