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Page 2 POST-GAZETTE, MARCH 27, 2015 by Prof. Edmund Turiello A weekly column highlighting some of the more interesting aspects qf our ancestry.., our lineage.., our roots. AESCULAPIUS & HIPPOCRATES The ancient Greek god of Medi- cine was named Aesculapius. He was often portrayed clad in a cloak while carrying a staff that had a serpent (snake) coiled around it. Mythology identifies him as a son of Apollo who was taught the art of healing by Chiron, a centaur. For those readers who might have for- gotten, a centaur was a mythologi- cal figure, half man and half horse. The ancients considered them to be symbols of the destructive forces of nature. Chiron the centaur is sup- posed to have possessed great knowledge in the arts and sciences, which he also taught to Hercules and Achil- les. The staff carried by Aesculapius was the origin of the "mace" that Greek ambassa- dors or heralds carried in time of war. Origi- nally, it was an olive branch with garlands. Legend tells us that Mercury, messenger of the gods, often carried a similar short staff or wand, and that at onetime he came upon two snakes that were fighting. Mercury separated the snakes with his wand and henceforth the staff became known as the symbol of peace. At a later date the staff was surmounted with two wings (a symbol of Mercury's speed), entwined with two snakes, and named "The Caduceus". We know it as the official emblem of the U.S. Medical Corps, and of medicine in general. Another popular legend tells Us that Aes- culapius went about the land curing the sick, and by some unexplainable power, was also able to recall the dead to life. Zeus feared that mankind might use this Samaritan as a means to escape death alto- gether, so he killed Aesculapius with a thunderbolt, but out of re- spect for his good deeds, placed him among the stars. Hippocrates was a direct descen- dant of Aesculapius. He also prac- ticed the art of healing while trav- eling throughout Greece. He was born about 460 B.C., and died in his early 80's. The so-called "Hippocratic Oath" dates back to very early times. It was an oath taken by young men when they began their medical studies, and of course, the practice of taking such an oath has continued with graduat- ing medical students right up to modern times. The present oath was thought to be the work of Hippocrates but subsequent re- search fixes its origins at sometime during the 3~ century A.D. The contemporary version is as follows: "I swear by Apollo, the physician, by Aes- culapius, by Hygieia, Panacea, and all the gods and goddesses, that according to my ability and judgment I will keep this oath and stipulation. I will look upon him who shall have taught me this art even as one of my parents. I will share my substance with him, and I will supply his necessities, if he be in need. I will regard his offspring even as my own brethren and I will teach them this art, if they would learn it, with- out fee or covenant. I will impart this art by precept, by lecture, and by every mode of teaching, not only to my own sons but to the (Continued on Page 14) Average Energy Prices In Boston-Brockton-Nashua- February 2015 Boston area households paid an average of $2.255 a gallon for gasoline in February 2015, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported. Regional Commissioner Deborah A. Brown noted that this was $1.19 below the Febru- ary 2014 price of $3.445 per gallon. In con- trast to gasoline prices, the average cost of electricity at 22.5 cents per kilowatt hour {kWh) in February was up from 17.3 cents per kWh spent last year. Utility (piped) gas prices averaged $1.303 per therm in the Bos- ton area in February 2015. Area natural gas prices were down from one year ago when they averaged $1.357 per therm. (Data in this release are not seasonally adjusted; ac- cordingly, over-the-year-analysis is used throughout.) At 82.255 the price of a gallon of gasoline in the Boston area was close to the national average of $2.308 in February 2015. One year ago, the local price of gasoline at 83.445 per gallon was similar to the national average of $3.422. From 2011 to 2015 in February area residents have paid close to the national av- erage for a gallon of gasoline. (See chart 1.) ~'qr ipao. ~,~ ~ area u~ted s~tes Febnl~l I F~12 FI!b~JacY. | t ~btl~ry.14 FebcUatV-1S The 22.5 cents per kWh Boston households paid for electricity in February 2015 was 63 percent more than the nationwide average of 13.8 cents per kWh. Last February, elec- tricity costs were 29.1 percent higher in Boston compared to the nation. In each of the last five years, the price of electricity in Boston has exceeded that for the nation in the month of February, by 15 percent or ~ooo L ......... i ~e~uar~-ll Febtuaty-I 2 Fe~c~ry.13 Februa,'y*14 Febcua~/-IS R Publica by David Trumbull iiiii New Guide to Due Process and Campus Justice The Foundation for Individual Rights in Education ("FIRE"] has announced the publication of the second edition of the Guide to Due Process and Campus Justice. Originally released in 2003 as the Guide to Due Process and Fair Procedure on Campus, the newly updated edition provides readers with a detailed understanding of student rights in college and university disciplinary hearings. It focuses on the evolving challenges to due process rights on today's campuses at both public and private universi- ties, including a new section on student rights in sexual misconduct hearings and an overview of legislative, judi- cial, and administrative developments affecting student due process rightsin recent years. The new Guide is avail- able for free download on FIRE's website at -- http:// www.thefire.org/fire-guides/fires-guide-to-due-proeess- and-campus-justice/ The Guide was coauthored by FIRE co-founder and board chairman Harvey Silverglate, a Boston attorney, and attor- ney Josh Gewolb. FIRE Vice President of Legal and Public Advocacy. FIRE is apolitical and exists to defend the rights of all students and staff of America's colleges and universities. That sets it apart from the many civil liberties organiza- tions which defend the rights of liberals while refusing to assist anyone who doesn't pass their litmus test. FIRE, in fact, was founded by liberal civil rights attorneys who ob- jected to the way the then existing civil liberties organiza- tions refused to help conservatives, Republicans, or reli- gious believers. With political correctness ruling on most campuses today, the persons most often silenced or dis- criminated against by school administrations had nowhere to turn for help until FIRE was founded. FIRE is a nonprofit educational foundation that unites civil rights and civil liberties leaders, scholars, journal- ists, and public intellectuals from- across the political and ideological spectrum on behalf of individual rights, free- dom of expression, academic freedom, due process, and free- dom of conscience at our nation's colleges and universi- ties. FIRE's efforts to preserve liberty on campuses across America can be viewed at thefire.org Transportation Improvements for Pedestrians, Cyclists and Drivers Mayor Martin J. Walsh an- nounced five transportation initiatives to improve how individuals on foot, bike, or in a vehicle move around the City of Boston with a signifi- cant focus on improving public safety. The announce- ments include a complete streets approach to Common- wealth Avenue, featuring pro- tected bike lane from the BU Bridge to Packard's Corner, .................................................................................................. ........ ' the adoption of Vision Zero more. (See chart 2.) Prices paid by Boston area consumers for utility {piped) gas, com- monly referred to as natural gas, were $1.303 per therm, 29.4 percent above the national average in February 2015 ($1.007 per therm). In February of 2014 local prices were 25.9 percent greater than those of the nation. Households in the Boston area have paid 25 percent or more than the national average for natural gas in the month of Feb- ruary in each of the last five years. (See chart 3.) Ch,i~ |. A',.I(~(~ [~r(,~mi b utlIl(- (1)I(o,(od) p. hlon~ha a,-.(I b ~ States. 2@1 t -.~ls (~m of F~b~,ar~ Sl,so ~.oo Fe~U,~*-~. ] 1 ~I~ru~r~.12 Fe~r~aw-B Fe~.l~ Feb,-uanc-lS The Boston-Brockton-Nashua, Mass.-N.H.- Maine-Conn. consolidated area consists of Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk, Plymouth and Suf- folk Counties and parts of Bristol, Hampden, and Worcester Counties in Massachusetts; parts of Hillsborough, Merrimack, Rocking- ham, and Strafford Counties in New Hamp- shire; part of York County in Maine; and part (Continued on Page 14) Boston, aimed at eliminating traffic fatalities in the city, the citywide replacement of parking meters with intelli- gent parking meters, and a pilot program to eliminate street sweeping towing. The initiatives are early action projects as part of Go Boston 2030 launched to imagine a bold new transportation plan for Boston for the next five, 10, and 15 years. *We're implementing inno- vative and inventive trans- portation strategies and in- frastructure upgrades in the City of Boston to improve travel safety and conve- nience," said Mayor Walsh. "Whether you walk, drive, take the T, or ride a bike on~ our streets, we're looking at solutions that can accommo- date every mode of transpor- tation in a meaningful way." VISION ZERO Mayor Walsh announced that the City of Boston will adopt Vision Zero, based on the premise that traffic fatali- ties are not accidents, but rather they are crashes that can be prevented by effective policies and systematic evaluation, enforcement, en- gineering, education, and community engagement. By adopting Vision Zero, the City of Boston joins cities such as New York, San Francisco, and Chicago, which have commit- ted to making traffic safety a priority. Toward that end, Mayor Walsh has convened a vision Zero Task Force to de- velop an action plan for a comprehensive and coordi- nated strategy to eliminate traffic fatalities and injuries in Boston. The Task Force includes representatives of Boston's Transportation Department (BTD), the Boston Police Department (BPD), the Pub- lic Works Departments (PWD), the Boston Public Health Commission (BPHC), Boston Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and WalkBoston, Mas- sachusetts' leading pedes- trian advocacy organization. Early action items include: BPD improvements to its electronic crash reporting system that will lead to bet- ter data collection and better crash analysis; BPD is hiring a full- time Transportation Safety Data Analyst and a full- time DDACTS Analyst (Data Driven Approaches to Crime and Traffic Safety) to reduce motor vehicle, pedestrian and bicycle collisions. Evidence in other cities suggests that this will also reduce crime. BPD and EMS will use crash data to identify pedes- trian crash hot spots and high (Continued on Page 6) ...... ~''e,