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Page 14 POST-GAZETTE, APRIL 10, 2015 NEWS BRIEFS rrAL00 NEWSPAPERS AND OTHER PICATIONS) Compiled bg io Z. Buttafuoco THE SOLAR SYSTEM: NASA'S SPACE TELESCOPE KEPLER, WE'RE NOT ALONE: Space exploration contin- ues to uncover new planets well outside the solar system, in the process creating a new map of the universe, unthinkable only a few years ago. The "Kepler" was sent into space in 2009. It quickly began to collect images and data about 150,000 stars. In 2013, one of the reaction wheels malfunctioned causing the shutdown of its activity, risk- ing the telescope's demise, to end its mission. The "alien" planets discovered now number 1,700. They rotate around 305 stars, in planetary systems somewhat similar to our solar system. NASA published a sizable part of the discov- eries in the Astrophysical Journal. The astrophysicists have discovered the new planets by analyzing data collected by the telescope in May 2009 and in March 2011. About 95% of the new planets are smaller than our neighbor Neptune, which is four times the size of Earth. Some are smaller than Earth and were found in an area defined habitable, where water at the liquid stage and forms of life may exist. The researchers have focused their attention on a planet they have called "Kepler-2965," twice the size of Earth, whose orbit is around a star which is half our sun. It could be a world similar to Earth, except scientists have not been able to understand if this planet is gaseous or as rocky one as the Earth. The discovery of all those planets outside our system establishes an unprecedented step forward to pinpoint worlds of smaller dimensions. The plan to launch a new telescope in 2018, the "James Webb," that may be able to study in details the new worlds discovered by Kepler. To talk of habitable worlds that may offer some form of life is, for now, a little premature! THE MUSICAL SCALE: THE ITALIAN (ORIGINAL) VERSION! From time to time I keep reading, on these pages too, that the musical scale was an historical axiom, created in Italy a few centuries ago. I have found that in America those who attend music schools as well as conservatories do not learn the original notes as they were named in Italia. They are: DO, RE, MI, FA, SO, LA, SI. Whoever had the brilliant idea to rename the notes has done a serious disservice to humanity! Whoever he/she was certainly was not being an innovator. I thought it was necessary to step in and clarify the issue. And that is all, for now! MASSACHUSETTS PORT AUTHORITY NOTICE TO CONTRACTORS Sealed General Bids for MPA Contract No. M539-Cl, BLACK FALCON CRUISE TERMINAL MAINTENANCE DREDGING, SOUTH BOSTON, MASSACHUSEI"rS will be received by the Massachusetts Port Authority at the Capital Programs Department Office, Suite 209S, Logan Office Center, One Harborside Drive, East Boston, Massachusetts 02128-2909, until 11:00 A.M. local time on WEDNESDAY, MAY 6, 2015 immediately after which, in a designated room, the bids will be opened and read publicly. NOTE: PRE-BID CONFERENCE WILL BE HELD AT BLACK FALCON CRUISE TERMINAL (1 BLACK FALCON AVENUE, SOUTH BOSTON MA 02127) AT 10:00 AM LOCAL TIME ON WEDNESDAY, APRIL 29, 2015. The work includes DREDGING BY MECHANICAL METHOD OF SEDIMENT FROM PARTICULAR LOCATIONS, TRANSFER OF MATERIAL TO LAND, AND DEWATERING OF DREDGED MATERIAL. Bid documents wiU be made available beginning WEDNESDAY, APRIL 15, 2015. Bid Documents in electronic format may be obtained free of charge at the Authority's Capital Programs Department Office, together with any addenda or amendments, which the Authority may issue and a printed copy of the Proposal form. The estimated Base Bid cost is $500,000. The estimated sum of Add-Alternates is $250,000. A proposal guaranty shall be submitted with each General Bid consisting of a bid deposit for five (5) percent of the value of the bid; when sub-bids are required, each must be accompanied by a deposit equal to five (5) percent of the sub-bid amount, in the form of a bid bond, or cash, or a certified check, or a treasurer's or a cashier's check issued by a responsible bank or trust company, payable to the Massachusetts Port Authority in the name of which the Contract for the work is to be executed. The bid deposit shall be (a) in a form satisfactory to the Authority, (b) with a surety company qualified to do business in the Commonwealth and satisfactory to the Authority, and (c) conditioned upon the faithful performance by the principal of the agreements contained in the bid. The successful Bidder will be required to furnish a performance bond and a labor and materials payment bond, each in an amount equal to 100% of the Contract price. The surety shall be a surety company or securities satisfactory to the Authority. Attention is called to the minimum rate of wages to be paid on the work as determined under the provisions of Chapter 149, Massachusetts General Laws, Section 26 to 27G, inclusive, as amended. The Contractor will be required to pay minimum wages in accordance with the schedules listed in Division II, Special Provisions of the Specifications, which wage rates have been predetermined by the U. S. Secretary of Labor and/or the Commissioner of Labor and Industries of Massachusetts, whichever is greater. The successful Bidder will be required to purchase and maintain Bodily Injury Liability Insurance and Property Damage Liability Insurance for a combined single limit of $1,000,000. Said policy shall be on an occurrence basis and the Authority shall be included as an Additional Insured. See the insurance sections of Division I, General Requirements and Division II, Special Provisions for complete details. This Contract is also subject to Affirmative Action requirements of the Massachusetts Port Authority contained in the Non-Discrimination and Affirmative Action article of Division I, General Requirements and Covenants, and to the Secretary of Labor's Requirement for Affirmative Action to Ensure Equal Opportunity and the Standard Federal Equal Opportunity Construction Contract Specifications (Executive Order 11246). The General Contractor is required to submit a Certification of Non-Segregated Facilities prior to award of the Contract, and to notify prospective subcontractors of the requirement for such certification where the subcontract exceeds $10,000. Complete information and authorization to view the site may be obtained from the Capital Programs Department Office at the Massachusetts Port Authority. The right is reserved to waive any informality in or reject any or all proposals. MASSACHUSE'I'rs PORT AUTHORITY THOMAS P. GLYNN CEO AND EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Run date: 4/10/2015 HISTORY OF FOOTBALL IN BOSTON -- PART II Boston 1930s BOSTON REt3SHtNS Boston Redskins team photo. (Photo courtesy of Boston Public Library) Redskins owner George Marshall posing with twins in a publicity photo, 1954 (Photo courtesy of D.C. Public Library/ Washington Post) With the Bulldogs gone following a mediocre 4-4 1929 season, Boston would get a second chance at a pro team in 1932 when the National Football League awarded West Virginia native George Preston Marshall and two minority owners a franchise. Remnants of Lone Star Dietz what had been the New- ark Tornadoes, the move was symbolic of a burning desire by the NFL to have a presence in Boston. Originally named the Braves, a name cho- sen because the team shared the Wigwam" Braves Field with baseball's National League Braves, Boston won its first game on October 9, 1932 in a 14-6 home win over the New York Giants. Similar to the Boston Bulldogs, the Braves first season would end with four wins and four losses and two ties. Unlike the Bulldogs, the team would sur- vive to see a second season in Boston, al- though its name did not. With his two minority owners backing out, after one season, Marshall now held unlim- ited power over the team. He decided to re- name it the Redskins, working out a deal with the Boston Red Sox to call Fenway Park home. Marshall also hired Head Coach Wil- liam Henry "Lone Star" Dietz. Dietz claimed to have been of Native American descent but most likely fabricated this to get out of combat in World War I. A popular rumor is that Marshall renamed the team in honor of his new coach and the fact that four players on the squad were of Native American descent. However, a 1933 article in the Hartford Courant quotes Marshall as putting this theory to rest. "So much confusion has been caused by our foot- ball team wearing the same name as the Boston Redskins play the New York Giants at Fenway Park, 1933. (Photo courtesy of Boston Public Library) Boston National League baseball club that a change appeared to be absolutely neces- sary. The fact that we have in our head coach, Lone Star Dietz, an Indian, together with several Indian players, has not, as may be suspected, inspired me to select the name Redskins." Today, a push exists to change the name of the franchise, now in Washington, from the controversial "Redskins." If the team wasn't named out of a sort of bigotry for his coach and players, where did Marshall get the name? Perhaps Marshall was peeved that the Braves had asked him to fmd a new home field, causing him to distance him- self from them. To date, there is no confir- mation. Marshall was well regarded as a racist, in modern day football, he would have never been allowed to own an NFL franchise. His team was the last in the NFL to add an Mri- can-American player and he would often be seen wearing ceremonial Indian head- dresses during games or at other functions in an attempt to draw in fans. When visiting the TD Garden, home to the Bruins and Celtics, take a walk up to the second floor to the Sports Museum. On dis- play you will find a 1935 Redskins sweater among other memorabilia. (Continued on Page 15)