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May 8, 2015     Post-Gazette
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Page 2 POST-GAZETTE, MAY 8, 2015 by Prof. Edmund Turiello A weekly column highlighting some of the more interesting aspects of our ancestry.., our lineage.., our roots. Greek mythology tells us that the Muses were origi- nally the nymphs of springs, whose waters gave inspira- tion to all who bathed in them. One of these springs was called Castalia. It was a celebrated place on Mount Parnassus (southern Greece), where a high priestess of Apollo was accustomed to bathe. The early history of Greek poetry and music includes many legends about the Muses, those goddesses of song in general. Later, as folklore developed, they be- came representatives of the various kinds of arts, sci- ences, and poetry. Homer, the traditional poet of an- cient Greece, sang of the Muses.dwelling on Mount Olympus and singing to the lyre of Apollo during the meals of the gods. Hesiod, who gave us the first gene- alogy of the gods referred to the Muses as the nine daughters of Zeus. He listed MUSAE (THE MUSES) them as 1. Calliope (she of the fair voice); the Muse of epic poetry and eloquence, the noblest of them all. She is usually shown with a wax tablet; 2. Clio (she that extols), the Muse of history who is usually represented holding a scroll; 3. Euterpe (she that gladdens), the Muse of lyrical song. She usually holds a double flute; 4. Thalia (she that flour- ishes), the Muse of comedy and bucolic (rustic) poetry. She is usually shown hold- ing a comic mask, ivy wreath, and a shepherd's staff; 5. Melpomene (she that sings), the Muse of tragedy that is identified by the tragic mask that she holds; 6. Terpsichore (she that re- joices in the dance), the Muse of dancing. She is identified by her lyre; 7. Erato (the lovely one), The Muse of erotic poetry. She is usually shown holding a small lyre; 8. Polymnia or Polyhymnia (she that is rich in hymns), the Muse of serious sacred songs. She is usually represented veiled and pensive. Lastly, there was 9. Urania (the heavenly). She is the Muse of astronomy that holds a celestial globe. General belief held that the favorite haunts of the Muses were certain springs located at the foot of Mount Parnassus, a mountain in southern Greece. All of the Muses were usually repre- sented as virgin goddesses with long garments and a cloak. Musical contests were held in their honor every five years. Athenians sacri- ficed to them in schools, while the ancient Spartans did so before a battle. The god Apollo was looked upon as their leader, with whom they shared knowledge of the past, the present, and the future. They also gladdened the hearts of men and gods with their music. NEXT WEEK: Museum MAYOR WALSH TO HOST SECOND-ANNUAL Donna Summer Memorial Roller Disco Party Mayor Martin J. Walsh announced the second annual Celebration of Summer to honor Boston native Donna Summer with a free roller disco event at City Hall Plaza on Friday, June 19th from 6:00 pm to 10:00 pm. "The free roller disco event is a great op- portunity for families to come out and have fun while honoring a fellow Boston native who is known around the world for her in- fluence on music," said Mayor Walsh. The event will feature other Boston na- tives including DJ Kon of Dorchester, Elisa Hamilton, creator of Dance Spot Boston, Frieda Fries of Jacques' Cabaret and the Boston Derby Dames roller derby team. "As an artist who creates dance floors, the spirit and color of Donna's sound basically defines the joy of dance music," said Hamilton who creates interactive chalk drawings depicting dance moves. "She's what makes us all want to get out on the floor." "I can't thank the Mayor enough on be- half of Donna's widower Bruce Sudano and my aunt's extended family, many of whom still live in Boston," said Robert Grant, who performs as O'Mega Red and is Summer's nephew." She always loved Boston and as a five-time Grammy winner, an Oscar win- ner and a genuinely beautiful soul, Donna will always be in the heart of the city." Donna Summer died on May 17, 2012 at age 62. rates as low as... Loan 4.@O'/o for 2nd Mortgages 10 year Loan 5.000% for 2nd Mortgages 15 year Loan 5.250% for 2nd Mortgages • ~PR .... Today's Variable Floating Rate Balances up to $250,000 Variable Rate Based on WSJ Prime Publica by David Trumbull Charter of Liberty "We hold here that the right to a speedy trial is as fundamen- talas any of the rights secured by the Sixth Amendment. That right has its roots at the very foundation of our English law heritage. Its first articulation in modern jurisprudence appears to have been made°in Magna Carta ..." -- Chief Justice Earl Warren delivering the opinion of the U.S. Supreme Court in the matter of Klopper v. North Carolina, March 13, 1967. Magna Carta (or, in English, *the Great Charter".) was signed by King John (best remembered in the popular mind as "Bad King John" of the Robin Hood tales) on June 15, 1215. The document, which marks its 800¢h anniversary next month, is, in important ways, the foundation of the liberties of English and American law. The origin was a dispute between the king and the barons, and neither was wholly satisfied with the compromises contained in the Charter. At the request of John, Pope. Innocent Ill annulled it. But the genie of liberty was out of the bottle and the Charter was amended and reaffirmed through the next few years and, in 1225, took the final form that makes it a foundational document in the English system of govern- ment and in every nation whose legal system owes some- thing to English law. Magna Carta did not create trial by jury, but it did en- shrine it as a right, as well as the concept of due process. "No free man shall be seized or imprisoned, or' s~.'pped of his rights or possessions, or outlawed or exiled, or deprived of his standing in any other way, nor will we proceed with force against ~ or send others to do so, except by the lawful judg- ment of his equals or by the law of the land." Even though England, to this day, has a State Church, Magna Carta laid down the law that even the king must respect certain ancient liberties of the Church. In America this became the religious establishment and free exer- cise clauses of the Constitution. "The English Church shall be free, and that men in our king- dom shall have and keep all these liberties, rights, and con- cessions, well and peaceably in their fullness and entirety for them and their heirs, of us and our heirs, in all things and all places forever." President Ronald Reagan summed it Up well in his April 16, 1986, Law Day Proclamation -- "The foundations of freedom upon which our Nation was built included the Magna Carta of 1215, English common law, the Mayflower Compact, the Act of Parliament abolishing the Court of the Star Chamber, and numerous colonial charters." JUSTINE YANDLE PHOTOGRAPHY 781.589.7347 JUSTINE.YANDLE@GMAIL.COM WWW.J USTINEYANDLEPHOTOGRAPH¥ COM /,fPINELLIS UNCTION FACILITY" Specializing in the art of celebration Wedding, Anniversary, Quinceafiera, Reunion, Birthday, Social and Corporate Events. Convenient location and valet parking makes Spinelli's East Boston the perfect location. We are dedicated to the highest level of service and professionalism to ensure the success of your special occasion. 280 Bennington Street, East Boston, MA Please Call 617-567-4499 spinellis.com