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May 11, 2012     Post-Gazette
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Page 2 POST-GAZETTE, MAY 11,2012 Stir00 by Prof. Edmund Turiello Nostra Aweeklycolumnhighlightingsome of the mo re in terest ing aspects of our ancestry.., our lineage.., our roots. The Roman word "divor- tum" generally signified a separation, a divorce, or a dissolution of marriage. Di- vorce was unknown in Rome during very ancient times, and the first recorded in- stance occurred in 233 B.C. when a marriage was ended because of barrenness. There were a number of de- grees of marriage, but two of the most common being those "with agreement" and those called free marriages "without agreement." A mar- riage "with agreement" was a highly religious ceremony, performed with solemn rites before a "Pontifex Maximus" (high priest) and ten wit- nesses, which could never under any circumstances be severed. The so-called "free marriages" were dissoluble (who ever heard of a free marriage?). The theory behind most Roman marriages made it quite easy for divorce. The love and affection of the par- ties was considered an es- sential part of any marriage DIVORTUM and this was necessary for its creation as well as its continuance. Either party could declare his or her in- tention to end the marriage and no decree or interfer- ence by any public author- ity was necessary. A divorce without mutual consent whereby only one party re- nounced the union was called a "repudium." In this case it was customary to first send a "Dear Jane or John" letter and state a rea- son. The letter was signed in the presence of seven wit- nesses and the keys were taken away as the partner was turned out of the house. Women were not without their equal rights in the matter; either she or her father had the right to dis- solve a marriage. Towards the latter part of the "Repub- lic," divorces became very common. Cicero is reported to have divorced his wife Terentia after living with her for thirty-three years, in order to marry a young woman. That's when they started calling him "smiling Cicero." A man named Sempronius Sophus di- vorced his wife because she attended public games with- out his knowledge. Some women in Rome kept a record of the passing years by the number of their hus- bands. One author mentions a woman who had eight hus- band in five years and who claimed that the fruit of marriage was divorce. Penalties were imposed on those persons who entered into divorce without a good cause and also on those whose conduct made divorce necessary. During early Christian times the right of free divorce was defined in the law, but any divorce outside of these laws was severely punished. The emperor Justinian pun- ished divorce even by mutual consent unless its object was for both parties to live a life of chastity (perish the thought). NEXT ISSUE: Chow Down in Old Rome Paul Caruccio Announces Candidacy for State Rep. Paul Caruccio submitted his certified signatures to officially qualfy as a candidate for State Representative for the 19 a Suf- folk District. As a result of Caruccio's highly successful signature drive, he obtained more signatures than the Sec- retary of State's office is per- mitted to accept. This was ac- complished in one short month and well before the state man- dated deadline. This legislative seat covers all of Winthrop and parts of Revere. Caruccio's decision to accept the challenge of running for State Representative is the result of resounding support from individuals of the communi- ties of Winthrop and Revere. "Virtually ev- eryone I have spoken with has expressed dissatisfaction with the current leadership on Beacon Hill and the lack of leadership choice," said Caruccio. Caruccio is commit- ted to providing that much needed choice and to restoring balance to state and local decisions affecting the communities of Winthrop and Revere. Paul Caruccio's message is nonpartisan and reflects the interests of both democratic ideals coupled with true fiscal responsibility. He is a strong advocate for term limits for all elective officials, secure com- munities legislation to protect all citizens (the current legis- lature refused to pass this leg- islation earlier this year) and timely improvements to our beaches and communities. Additionally, Caruccio, a Republican, advocates for tighter control over state spending which increased by 19% or $5.6 billion over the last four years and at a time of extreme economic malaise. Paul Caruccio is also opposed to a local casino; however he is cognizant of the imperative df mitigation efforts specifically earmarked kr Winthrop, as well as Revere, as a continncy. The citizels of Revere and Winthrop deserve a voice that will represent their true values and Paul intends to deliver it. IF IT AIN'T BROKE, FIX IT?. I heard there were a bunch of college students roaming the streets of the North End to make things better for North Enders. I think they held a meeting recently on their findings and looking for our input. Talk about shutting down Hanover Street to travel is once again high up on their agenda. by Sal Giarratani Shutting down any part of Hanover Street sounds like a good idea on paper but when the tire meets the road the road ain't ready for just pedestrians. Even down on Federal Hill, the main road is open to all traf- fic. They do have a lo,ely Italian piazza with grass, a water fountain and some of Greater Boston's Affordab[e Pnvate Cemetery Traditional Burial Plot (for 2) Starting at S 1500 T, MICI00L CEMETERY 500 Conterbury St. 617.524.1036 Boston, MA 02] 3] www.stmichaelcemetery.com Serving the Italian community for over 100 years! the best Italian restaurants around and it all works for them. However, Hanover Street isn't Federal Hill. Do you remember when Salem Street was closed down to traffic decades ago? Planners then had the same basis idea as today's plan- ners. Make the roads car- free and let people roam. It didn't work on Salem Street and why do folks think it could work on Hanover Street today?. Getting tourists to our city to visit the North End has never been a problem. Getting tourist to Federal Hill isn't a problem either. The North End doesn't need a European plaza to survive. When I was a kid there were maybe, tops, seven or eight places to eat. Today, that (Continued on Page 14) Res Publica by David TrumbuU Obama Administration Announces New Trade Agreements Designed to Kill U.S. Jobs The Obama Administration has announced a free trade agreement with Colombia to go into effect Tuesday. U.S. import duties will go to zero. However, U.S. producers will find that their exports to Colombia will be subject to a 16% Valued Added Tax ("VAT"). Back on March 15 th the Obama Administration imple- mented the U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement. U.S. tariffs go to zero. Korea will retain a 10% VAT on imports from America. In both agreements U.S. duties will be bound at zero for the duration of the agreement (which has no termination date). Colombia and Korea are free to increase VAT on imports from American at any time. Aside from the debate over the theory of free trade -- economists are divided on the overall benefits versus cost of global free trade -- these are not free trade agreements. The agreements the U.S. has with Colombia, with Korea and all the agreements back to NAFTA are what my col- league George S. calls, "import maximization agreements." They are designed to bring into the U.S. the maximum amount of cheap foreign products, with resulting loss of U.S. jobs. Opening foreign markets for U.S.-made products is not a priority for our government negotiators, as witnessed by the unequal outcome (we go to zero tax on imports while our trading partners keep a 10% or 16% tax on our products). Now President Obama is pushing for free trade agree- ments with Brunei and Vietnam. A round of negotiations is just now rapping up in Dallas. According to Mr. Obama's own State Department -- The [Brunei] Ministry of Education requires courses on Islam ... and prohibits the te_aching of other reli- gions. Private Christian schools were not allowed to give Christian instruction to Christian or Muslim stu- dents but could offer voluntary, Islamic instruction to Muslim students ... [T]he government warned Christian schools that they or their personnel could be fined or imprisoned for teaching non-Muslim religious subjects. That same State Department report says of Vietnam -- The Socialist Republic of Vietnam ... is an authoritar- ian state ... arresting several political activists. Several editors and reporters from prominent newspapers were fired for reporting on official corruption ... Police com- monly mistreated suspects during arrest or detention ... Individuals were arbitrarily detained for political activities and denied the right to fair and expeditious trials. The government continued to limit citizens' pri- vacy rights and tightened controls over the press and freedom of speech, assembly, movement and associa- tion. Violence and discrimination against women as well as trafficking in persons continued to be sign- cant problems. There are nearly 200 nations in the world. Of all the places, the President picks a repressive communist regime and an intolerant Islamic monarchy as the next beneficia- ries of special trading privileges. DIVORCE * CRIMINAL * LAW OFFICES OF FRANK J. CIANO 230 MSGR. O'BRIEN HIGHWAY - GENERAL PRACTICE OF LAW WILLS * ESTATE PLANNING TRUSTS PERSONAL INJURY * WORKERS COMP. 617-354-9400 Si Parla Italiano CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02141 Boston Harborside Home Joseph A. Langone 580 Commercial St. Boston, MA 02109 617-536-4110 www.bostonharborsidehome.com Augustave M. Sabia, Jr. Trevor Slauenwhite Frederick J. Wobrock Dino C. Manca Courtney A. Fitzgibbons A Service Family Affiliate of AFFS/Service Corporation International 206 Winter St., Fall River, MA 02720 Telephone 508-676-2454