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July 4, 2014     Post-Gazette
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July 4, 2014

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Page 2 POST-GAZETTE, JULY 4, 2014 Stir00 by Prof. Edm00d Wur00llo ] Res Pubjica Nostra of the more interesting aspects of our ancestry.., our lineage.., our roots. Citizens, Not Subjects QUINTILIAN Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, known to us as Quintilian, was a celebrated Roman lit- erary critic, teacher, and rhetorician. He was born in Spain about 35 A.D. and received his training as an orator at Rome, but started his public career as an "advocatio" (legal counsel). Although he was well known for his legal work, he became quite famous as a teacher in rhetoric. Quintilian soon attracted the attention of Emperor Vespasian, and was appointed to the position of "Public Professor of Rhetoric". He retained- this salaried office for about twenty years, and died about 100 A.D. after ten fruitful retirement years. There is no doubt that Quintilian's greatest work was "De Institutione Oratoria," prepared in twelve books that required about two years to write. The work gives a complete course in rhetoric, includ- ing detailed information on the proper train- ing in practical elocution, starting with pre- Bust of Marcus Fabius Quintilianus. liminary education, and lead- ing right through to the time of the orator's first public appearance. The first two books describe the elementary education of his time in Rome. The follow- ing nine books discuss in- vention, arrangement, com- position, memory, and deliv- ery; all as applied to oratory. The twelfth book describes the perfect orator, his skills and moral character. The tenth book is espe- cially famous for its compari- sons of well known Greek and Roman writers, along with a critical analysis of each. De Institutione Oratoria was lost during the Middle Ages but recovered by Giovanni Bracciolini during the Renaissance when it immediately influenced the educational style of that later age. Quintilian's most cel- ebrated theory was that the prime function of education was to produce men of high character and broad culture. NEXT ISSUE: Literati of The Later Empire S i m p l e TIMES by Girard A. Plante As Americans celebrate Independence Day, we must pause to realize the precious freedoms we daily enjoy, and recognize that wars rage in every corner of the globe. Terrorists roam wildly without conscience and there is little intervention from police or militaries in countries affected by their ceaseless killings. For example, the four- year disaster in Syria is led by Bashar al-Assad, whose father began the family's reign of terror four decades ago. Assad has ordered his army to maliciously murder thousands of innocent citizens and continu- ously bomb the nation he calls 'home.' Over two million civilians are refugees. Rogue bands of Nigerian men kidnap scores of young girls as they pillage town after town, killing hundreds of peaceful people. The thugs escape an inept army lacking the willpower to confront them. Ukraine cries for autonomy and recog- nition by the European Union, yet Russian President Vladimir Putin's penchant for dom- inance and illegal interference of Ukraine's sovereignty is reminiscent of the defunct Soviet Union, where he thrived as a KGB secret agent. Iraq's military, which Americans paid bil- lions of dollars to train and arm to defend itself from evil extemal forces, now finds much of its vital regions overrun by emboldened insurgents. And the misfit band of evil- All the glory that was Rome ..... Pompei doers, the Taliban, has joined the mayhem to claim a stronghold as they seek to remain relevant in a rush to world domination. America's soldiers still stand in harm's way in Afghanistan as they slowly wind down their decade-long stay to achieve normalcy in that vastly unsettled nation. Let us pray no American soldiers are killed before they leave by year's end. So here we are well into the 21 St century and looking back 100 years to the begin- ning of the Great War in late July 1914. Commonly referred to by historians as "The war to end all wars," it was ignited by a Serbian assassin, who shot Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. The Great War witnessed the death of 14 million sol- diers and civilians. The Great War became known as WWI after the end of WWII, which consumed 75 million soldiers and civilians. America's military was involved in both of those horrific wars. Pete Seeger, the famous folk singer and peace activist, who died earlier this year at age 96, reminds me of some of the lyrics to the song he created to unify opposition to the Vietnam War in the 1960s: "Where have all the flowers gone. Long time pass- ing. When will we ever learn? When will we ever learn?" On this July Fourth holiday uniquely celebrating America's vic- tory over tyrannical rule 238 years ago, we simply look to the Great War's lessons in the hope that war of all man- ner and purpose ceases someday. CAFFt POX4PEI }]]  IT NI ,:'-4A02113 TEL. 617-227-1562 FAx. 617-742-7927 ! Bistro * Beer * Wine Your aa C0ul00 Go J : r For information about advertising in the Post-Gazette, call 617-227-8929. On this date in 1776 the delegates to the Second Continental Congress de- clared that the people they represented were citizens of the United States and not subjects of His Britannic Majesty, George III. The document by which this shift of allegiance and status was proclaimed is tri- partite. The preamble con- tains a general justification of self-government. It ends with the formal declaration of severance of ties to Great Britain and the establish- ment of the United States of America. Between the beau- tiful prose of "When in the Course of human Events ..." and "We hold these Truths to be self-evident" and the precise legal statement of the resolution for indepen- dency in the final paragraph lies an enumeration of the outrages of King George Ill which justify this revolution- ary act. To declare that men and women are not subjects of a monarch but citizens of a republic was both revolu- tionary and prophetic. To quote part of a prayer for Independence Day "... The founders of this country won liberty for themselves and for us, and lit the torch of freedom for nations then unborn ..." It was also rooted in history. The founders looked back to the ancient democracy of Athens, the republic of Rome, and to the words of the Hebrew prophet Samuel. In Chapter 8 of the First Book of Samuel we are told that the elders of Israel came to Samuel and asked him to make them a king like all the nations. Samuel relayed this request to God, and the Lord said to Samuel: "Tell them this will be the manner of the king that shall reign over you: "He will appoint him cap- tains over thousands, and captains over fifties; and will set them to ear his ground, and to reap his harvest ..." (1 Sam. 8:12) and "He will take your daughters to be confectionaries, and to be cooks, and to be bakers." (i Sam. 8:13) and "He will take your fields, and your vineyards, and your olive yards, even the best of them, and give them to his servants." {1 Sam. 8:14) and "He will take your menser- vants, and your maidservants, and your goodliest young men, and your asses, and put them to his work." (1 Sam. 8:16) Compare those verses to this indictment of King George Ill in the Declaration of Independence: "He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance." The Declaration contin- ues: "He has kept among us, in times of peace, stand- ing armies, without the con- sent of our legislatures." Now compare that to: "He will take your sons, and appoint them for himself, for his chariots, and to be his horsemen; and some shall run before his chariots." (.I Sam. 8:11) and "He will appoint him cap- tains over thousands, and cap- tains over fifties; and will set them ... to make his instru- ments of war, and instruments of his chariots." (1 Sam. 8:12) The Declaration goes on to indict the King for: "Impos- ing Taxes on us without our Consent." The Lord, through Samuel, had something to say about that as well, "He will take the tenth of your seed, and of your vineyards, and give to his officers, and to his servants." (1 Sam. 8:15} and "He will take the tenth of your sheep: and ye shall be his servants." (1 Sam. 8:17) The passage from the Old Testament ends: "And ye shall cry out in that day because of your king which ye shall have chosen you; and the Lord will not hear you in that day." It would be many centuries before men and women would live as citi- zens rather than subjects. That is why we celebrate the Fourth of July. NORTH END00 PRINTING 5 PRINCE STREET * NORTH END * BOSTON, MA 02113 Quality Printing for all your Commercial and Personal Needs Stationery * Business CardS Menus Flyers Program Books * Wedding and Party Invitations Announcements * Business Forms and Documents COMPETITIVE PRICES 617-227-8929