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Page2 r . POST-GAZETTE, JULY 11,2014 i by Prof. Edmund Turiello A zoeekly column highlighting some of the more interesting aspects of our ancestry.., our lineage.., our roots. LITERATI OF THE LATE EMPIRE Recently we started the series on Roman scholars, and as you may recall, divided all of Latin literati into four periods or Ages. These were: 1, The Early Age: 2. The Golden Age: 3. The Silver Age. and 4. The Late Empire, We have com- pleted our brief description of many greats in the first three;_~Ages ~Now we enter the Late Empire. and our cov- erage will include six of the 4reatest schoJars that this Age produced Fhree o[ them will be honored this week, ~nd the last three will be reserved for next week. ~. ANNAES FLORUS Lhe first member of this weeks ~r~o was a Latin historian, born either in Gaul or in Spain, and wrote during the ceign of Trajan. He prepared a history of Rome starting with the origin of the city and continuing to a point midway in the reign of Augustus. Experts tells us that this work was not so much a history as it was a eulogy of the Roman people, written in elegant fashion, and in an oratorical style. The work of Florus was pre- pared in two manuscripts which, unfortunately, have been handed down to us m a very corrupt state. 2. GAIUS, the second of this week's trio. was one of the most accomplished pro- fessors of Roman law, and also a writer on that subject. He was born in one of the Title page from John Price's Latin edition of Apuleius' novel Metamor- phoses, or the Golden Ass (Gouda, Netherlands, 1650) Asian provinces and resided in Rome during the reigns of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius He pre- pared numerous manuscripts but the only one which is still available to us today is an introduction to the pri- vate law of the Romans called "Institutiones," which was written in four books. The first book covered laws governing the Roman family, while the second and third treated property rights and the last concentrated on legal procedure. It should be of interest too note that this set became a favorite hand- book of law during those ancient times, and was used as a foundation for some of the Justinian Law. 3. LUCIUS APULEIUS, more commonly known as simply Apuleius, is the last of this week's scholarly trio. He was born in Africa, into a wealthy family, and this permitted him to travel to Athens where he spent a considerable amount of time studying the work of Plato. He lived in Rome for many years following his classical studies and became engaged as an advocate. Apuleius returned to Africa fairly early in his career and married a wealthy older woman. After he was charged with using magic to win the rich widow's hand, he replied with much wit in an oration called "Apologia," which has since become quite famous. He subsequently traveled throughout Africa, delivering lectures and orations. His most famous work is prob- ably "The Golden Ass," a book which tells the story of a man named Lucius, who is transformed into an ass; thus providing him ample opportunity to observe the ridiculous doings of man- kind, and also the activities of Cupid and Psyche. Throughout this story, the moral conditions of the time are also depicted with much humor. NEXT WEEK: Suetonius, Marcellinus, and Claudian East Boston Main Streets Honored by Boston City Cou On Friday, June 15% East Boston Main Streets Execu- tive Director Max Gruner and Director of Community Outreach Antonio Arevalo were presented by City Councilor Sal LaMattina with a commendation from the Boston City Council recognizing Main Streets' effort in successfully bring- ing the.~4naugural Eastie Week 2014 to the East Boston Community. "A special thanks and token of appreciation needs to be paid to Max Gruner and Antonio Arevalo," said Councilor Sal LaMattina. "Not only did they organize 10 days of successful pro- gramming for Eastie Week, they never cease to take advantage of every opportu- Report Sanitary Sewer Overflows (SSOs) to Boston Water and Sewer Commission A sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) is an unintentional discharge of untreated sewage into the environment or a property. A 550 can occur as a result of a blockage or collapse in either the public sewer in the street or the private sewer in your home or business. IF YOU ENCOUNTER A SEWER OVERFLOW, CALL BWSC 24 HOUR EMERGENCY SERVICE AT 617-989-7000. ncil nity to incorporate all of the residents of East Boston no matter what the holiday or occasion may be. These two men symbolize what makes East Boston stand out from the rest of the city, the abil- ity to accept and include everyone and make them feel at home. No one should ever be afraid to embrace their c.ulture or where they came from and Max and Antonio know that all too well. Congratulations and keep up the great workT" After having organized consecutive daily events for a week and a half that in- cluded a complimentary har- bor cruise enjoyed by over 700 East Boston residents, open studios highlighting two original art installatians commissioned especially for Eastie Week, an original documentary movie screen- ing produced for East Boston, as well as numerous social events that included com- munity yoga and salsa so- cials, the East Boston Main Streets team was found eel- ebrating Fathers' Day at the culminating Block-Party on Maverick Street. =It is won- derful to see EBMS' effort in (Continued on Page I0) Publica by David Trumbull Persons, not People My Facebook friends on the political left are, once again, in the wake of the Hobby Lobby decision riled up over the Supreme Court and clamoring, again, for a constitutional amendment to say that, "Corporations are not People," thus, they believe, over-turning the 2010 Citizens United decision. Well, of course corporations are not people! No one ever said they were. Okay, I concede, Mitt Romney did say that during the 2012 presidential campaign, but Romney never did strike me as being very bright. People, from the Latin populus, means human beings taken as a group, whether construed as a singular or plural noun. Clearly, corporations are not people, as they are not human. Liberals demanding a "Corporations are Not People" amendment might just as well call for a "The Moon is Not Made of Green Cheese" amendment. Corporations are, however, persons, something that, for centuries until 2010 was never doubted. A person (from the Latin persona) in the eyes of the law, is an entity with legal standing. A person can sue and be sued. own property, enter contracts, and employ other persons. As far back as ancient Roman law and through the English Common Law that forms the basis for American law, corpo- rations have been recognized as artificial persons. If Hobby Lobby and Citizens United were not "persons" they would have had no standing to sue, nor would the laws they were protesting have applied to them, as the law operates on persons only. The doctrine of corporate personhood was explicitly enunciated by the Supreme Court nearly 200 years ago in the celebrated Dartmouth College. In the 1819 Dartmouth case the legislature of New Hampshire attempted a hostile takeover of the school, a private corporation, in order to treat it as a public institution and run it as the state saw fit. The brilliant Daniel Webster argued for the corporation that "... its rights stand on the same ground as those of an individual." The Court agreed, and Associate Justice Joseph Story in his concurring opinion wrote (emphasis added): "An aggre- gate corporation, at common law, is a collection of individu- als, united into one collective body It is, in short, an artifi- cial person, existing in contemplation of law, and endowed with certain powers and franchises which, though they must be exercised through the medium of its natural members, are yet considered as subsisting in the corporation /Itself, as d/st/nct|y as if it were a real personage." Law, not nature, created corporations, and the law may operate differently toward corporations than toward individu- als. For example, corporations cannot vote, be drafted, or serve as public officers. The question is what rights of a natural person do we give to artificial persons. I believe the court decided correctly in the Citizens United and Hobby Lobby cases. Others, including some of the Supreme Court Justices, disagree. But the solution, if you think the court erred, is to address the specific errors, not throw away what has served us well for hundreds of years -- the legal doctrine that Corporations are Persons. North End Athletic Association ANNUAL GOLF TOURNAMENT IN MEMORY OF CARMEN "TILLY" DE MARTINO MONDAY, AUGUST 4, 2014 7:30 a.m. (shot gun start) ANDOVER COUNTRY CLUB Canterbury Street, Andover, MA More than 144 golfers participate in this sold-out tournament annually. It is important that you save the date and plan on joining us on Monday, August 4% GOLF, LUNCH AND RAFFLE PRIZES ... The money raised from this tournament allows the North End Athletic Association to purchase uniforms and equipment for sporting events and add to existing programs. The North End Athletic Association is a 54-year-old organization which provides athletic, social, educational and civic activities within the community and the City of Bostoru For further information, please contact Louis Cavagnaro at 617-523-7410