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Page 2 POST-GAZETTE, SEPTEMBER 25, 2015 by Prof. Edmund Turiello A weekly column highlighting some of the more interesting aspects of our ancestry.., our lineage.., our roots. SACRIFICIUM (The Sacrifice) Most readers understand that "sacrificium" is the Latin root for our English word "Sacrifice." The pagan sacrifice was serious busi- ness to the pre-Christian ancients, as it formed the major part of every religious act. Their sacrifices were ei- ther bloodless offerings or blood offerings. The bloodless variety used fruits, cakes, and choice articles of food that were either burned at the altar or placed on special tables before it. Liquid offer- ings were also made and these included wine, milk, water, and honey. Cattle, goats, swine, and sheep were normally used for blood offer- ings; however, special ani- mals were also used as they identified with certain gods. Horses were sacrificed to Poseidon (Roman-Neptune), and dogs to the goddess Hecate, as she was often as- sociated with the dog of the lower world and together they haunted gravesites. Both ancient Romans and Greeks followed the rule of sacrific- ing male animals to gods and females to goddesses, while dark or black colored animals Preparation of an animal sacrifice; marble, fragment of an architectural relief, first quarter of the 2nd century AD; from Rome, Italy. were sacrificed to the gods of the lower world. The Romans eventually established special rules re- garding the victims that were considered appropriate to the various divinities. A young white steer was re- served for Jupiter, Neptune, or Apollo, while a red calf was used for Vulcan, and a male goat for Mercury, to name just a few. Firm rules were also established re- garding the condition of the animals; only those that were without blemish, and had not yet been used for la- bor were sacrificed. Saint Albert of Jerusalem by Bennett Moltnari and Richard Molinari Albert was born in Castle Gulatieri to a noble family in Parma, Italy, in 1149. In 1180, he became a canon at the Holy Cross Ab- bey in Mortara, Pavia, where he became Prior. In 1184, he was appointed as the bishop of Bobbio, Italy, and soon after he was named to the See of Vercelli where he served for twenty years. Dur- ing this period, he under- took diplomatic missions of national and international importance with both pru- dence and firmness. In 1194, he effected a peace between Pavia and Milan, and in 1199 between Parma and Piacenza. In 1205, Albert was ap- pointed Patriarch of Jerusa- lem, the province to which he later served as Papal Legate. He arrived in Pales- tine early in 1206 and lived in Acre because, at that time, Jerusalem was occu- pied by the Saracens. Overlooking the city and bay of Acre is the holy moun- tain called Carmel. At the time, a group of hermit monks lived on Mount Carmel in separate caves and cells. In 1209, Albert was approached by St. Brocard, who was the prior or supe- rior of the group of hermits, to draw up a rule of life for them, a rule that would constitute the beginning of the Carmelite Order. Albert's rule regulating the monas- tic life of these men included severe fasts, a perpetual ab- stinence from meat, silence, and seclusion. Believing the Rule too rigorous, Pope Inno- cent IV relaxed some of its provisions in 1254. Addition- ally, Albert mediated in dis- putes between the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the King- dom of Cyprus and between the Knights Templar and the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. He was called to the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215, but was stabbed to death before leaving Pales- tine, in the Church of Saint John of Acre while he was part of the procession for the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, He was stabbed by the Master of the Hospi- tal of the Holy Spirit, whom Albert had reprimanded and discharged for his evil life. The feast of Saint Albert of Jerusalem is celebrated on September 17. Rules were also set down to govern the age of the victims. Lambs could not be offered before their first shearing, and sheep could be offered only after they had given birth to lambs. Suckling pigs had to be five days old, and calves had to be thirty days old. Mature animals that were used for sacrificial rites were considered to be those whose upper and lower rows of teeth were complete. It appears that the use of ani- mals for religious sacrifices was controlled by firm rules, and those who varied from the exact requirements were required to atone, or make amends if discovered. When victims meeting the specific requirements could not be obtained, the law permitted the substitution of a wax representation, one made of dough, or a specific sub- stitute animal. Instances where animals were sacri- ficed in great numbers at one time have been recorded but are rare. One such mass sac- rifice occurred in commemo- ration of the Athenian victory at the battle of Marathon, where five hundred goats were slain. NEXT WEEK: The Sacrificial Altar I DIAMONDS 1 ROLEX ESTATE JEWELRY Bought & Sold Jewelers Exch. Bldg. Jim (617) 263-7766 LEGAL NOTICE Commonwealth of Massachusetts The Trial Court Middlesex Probate and Family Court 208 Cambridge Street Cambridge, MA 02141 (617) 768-5800 Docket No, MI196P5084EP Estate of ANTHONY JOHN GUIFFRE Date of Death September 23, 1996 CITATION ON PETITION FOR FORMAL APPOINTMENT OF SUCCESSOR PERSONAL REPRESENTATIVE To all interested persons: A Pe~on has been filed by Gone Guiffre of Wakefield, MA requesting that the Court enter a formal Decree and Order that Gene Guiffre of Wakefield, MA be appointed as Successor Personal Representative(s) of said estate to serve Without Surety on the bond and for such other relief as requested in the Petition. You have the dght to obtain a copy of the Petition from the Petitioner or at the CourL You have a dght to object to this proceeding, To do so, you or your attomey must file a written appearance and objection at this Court before 10:00 a.m. on October 9, 2015. This is NOT a headng date, but a deadline by which you must file a written appearance and objection if you object to this proceed- ing. If you fail to file a timely written appear- ance and objection followed by an Affidavit of Objections within thirty (30) days of the return date, action may be taken without further notice to you. The estate is being administered under formal procedure by the Personal Represen- tative under the Massachusetts Uniform Probate Code without supervision by the Court. Inventory and accounts are not required to be filed with the Court, but recipi- ents are entitled to notice regarding the administration from the Personal Represen- tative and can petition the Court in any matter relating to the estate, including distribution of assets and expenses of administration. WITNESS, HON. EDWARD F. DONNELLY, JR., First Justice of this Court. Date: September 11, 2015 Tara E. DeCristofaro, Register of Probate Run date: 9/25/15 imple by Girard A. Plante As the season of feasts has passed and autumn begins, I reflect on the final week- end feast of the summer. Attending this year's St. Anthony's Feast in the North End, I partook in both the Saturday afternoon fes- tivities, enjoying dinner with family. I returned to Sun-day's procession of the statue of St. Anthony as I do every year. I arrived at the Sunday event at 10:00 am pre- pared to capture the build-up to the reverential proces- sion. I strolled directly to my patron saint's statue. The headquarters to the St. Anthony's Club sits 20-feet across the narrow street. Next door is the Chapel of Saint Lucy, where a line of faithful prayed, lit candles, and snapped photos. The area was a beehive of activity as several men wearing T-shirts smoked cigars, sipped coffee, ate fried dough, and chatted about the "early years" of the Sunday event, along with other story-telling. These are the men who wear white satin shirts emblazoned with a corsage ribbon identifying them as honorary members of the Saint Anthony Club. With a blaring sun above, they du- tifully carry the wood stand that holds St. Anthony's statue sturdy and aloft for the thousands of people to clearly see and pin dollars to white silk ribbons. Women of all ages carried rolls of white ribbon with pin cushions throughout the route of the procession. On my stroll to the statue of Saint Anthony, I introduced my two sisters to the Cannoli Girl, whom I first met with my twin in 2008. She always recognizes me. For my sisters' sake, I asked the Cannoli Girl how many years she's worked the popu- lar late-August feast. "Forty years," she shouted as the crowd grew larger from all areas. Upon leaving, we turned to a quieter street and met Anthony, who sat under a white canopy on the street in front of the home he grew up in. A three-story walk-up that harkens to another era. I sought to learn about the atmosphere years before when the original immi- grants began the sacred sojourn to St. Anthony. He recalled simpler times when visitors had respect. "I picked up four boxes of pizza after a van loaded with people stopped, ate their pizzas, then tossed the trash on the sidewalk," as he ges- tured to the spot behind him. Anthony loves the feasts that begin in early May and culminate with the four-day Feasts of St. Anthony, as well as Saint Lucy the Monday after. I asked about the three-story renovated build- ing adjacent to his home. "It's a beautiful building." It rises in contrast to several older homes along the street, particularly the old Knights of Columbus build- ing (circa 1923) a few doors away. "Lots of changes down here (North End) over the past 25 years," Anthony exclaims. I asked about the price of rent of the newly-renovated building where each of the three floors are individual apartments. "Each one sold long before renovation be- gan," adds Anthony, "For $1.5 million each floor!" "Each floor?" I asked in disbelief. Times have surely changed. We continued towards Hanover Street to meander through the opposite end to Commercial Street, and the Harbor Walk to the Marriott Hotel on Boston Harbor to wait for our ride back to Newton. I saw another construction project sand- wiched between two three- story homes a block from Salem Street. More over- inflated condominiumsl Anthony's anecdotes of his immigrant parents and a life filled with wonderful people and memorable occasions in the North End, college stu- dents annually flooding the narrow streets to the high- rent available apartments across the North End, and the time-honored traditions of the oldest neighborhood in Boston struck a sentimen- tal chord. As I thought of the con- struction of luxury homes and pricey apartments in Downtown Crossing, South Boston, Fenway, West Boston, and a high-rise in Copley, I recalled Anthony's comments as we wished him well. "I love this place. Every- thing I need is a block over there and a few blocks up that way. I don't even own a car. I take Zip-Car when I need to travel to Logan Air- port or go to the Cape," he explained. What will happen to the timeless traditions of the folks who brought their brand of living simply and honorably from Italy? Where will young descendants of these families live? The cur- rent era of outsourcing and buying old buildings that be- come out of reach for middle- class workers to buy or rent is ominous to future genera- tions. Will the North End slide towards a shell of its former old-world grandeur? My optimistic side tells me that the area has endured many challenges seemingly insurmountable the past 300 years. These current chal- lenges will be dealt with to retain that unique taste of a simpler time. Turning to prayer and working to secure the best fit for all folks re- siding in the North End con- tinues to be a viable option worthy of pursuing. For events going on in Mas husetts this FAL visit t Ma chusetts Office of Travel & Tourism Web at wmw.massvacation.com. WWW.BOSTONPOSTGAZETTE.COM