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Page 6 POST-GAZETTE, NOVEMBER 8, 2013 Saint Martin of Tours by Bennett Molinari and Richard Molinari Martin was born in Pannonia, a Roman province that includes modern Hun- gary, about the year 317. Martin was the son of pagan parents, his father was an officer in the Roman army. Martin became interested in Christianity at an early age, becoming a catechumen by the age of ten. He was still an unbaptized catechumen when he was forced to join the army at 15. The Roman army apparently had a law that required sons of veter- ans to serve in the military. He was assigned to a cer- emonial cavalry unit that protected the emperor and rarely saw combat. Like his father, he became an officer and eventually was assigned to garrison duty in Gaul (present-day France). ' It was at Amiens that the event took place that has been portrayed in art throughout the ages. On a bitterly cold winter day, Mar- tin, who was about eighteen, approached the gates of a vil- lage, saw a beggar, with clothes so ragged that he was practically naked, no one reached out to help him. Martin, overcome with com- passion, took off his cloak and cut it in two with his sword, handed half to the freezing man and wrapped the remainder on his own shoulders. That night Mar- tin dreamed that he saw Jesus wearing the half cloak he had given the beggar. Jesus said to the angels and saints that surrounded him, "Sect this is the cloak that Martin, yet a catechumen, gave me." When he woke, it was the words," yet a cat- echumen" that spurred him immediately to be baptized and then urged him to en- ter religious life under the instruction of Saint Hilary, who was then Bishop of Poitiers. Searching for direction, Martin spent the following years in various places, liv- ing for a time, the life of a hermit off the coast of Italy. He was known to be a staunch supporter of the Church and was publicly whipped for offering opposi- tion to the Arian heresy which had spread through- out the empire. Bishop Hi- lary was then also exiled from Poitiers for opposing the Arians. The Arians soon discovered that Hilary was even more trouble in exile, because of his writings and allowed him to return to Poitiers. Martin was there to meet him on his return and renewed their old friend- ship. In order to fulfill Martin's call to solitude, Hi- lary gave him a wilderness retreat. It was there that Martin laid the foundation to the monastery of Liguge'. Martin remained in this monastery near his teacher and friend until Hilary died. It was while at his monas- tery that he was chosen to become Bishop of Tours in 371. Instead of living in a fine residence, Martin made his first home as bishop in a cell attached to a church in hopes of being able to main- tain his lifestyle as a monk. But at that time bishops were more than spiritual pastors. With the Empire's administration disintegrat- ing under outside invasion and internal conflict, often the only authority in a town like Tours was the bishop. People came to Martin con- stantly with questions and concerns that involved all the affairs of the area. To regain some of his solitude, Martin chose to live outside the city in a cabin made of branches. There he at- tracted as many as eighty disciples who wanted to fol- low him and founded the monastery of Marmoutiers. He kept in touch with Tours (Continued on Page 15) MaidenItaly Enjoy an Evening of Elegance Sounds MaidenItaly will be appearing on November 20 th at Ryles Jazz Club, 212 Hampshire Street, Cambridge, MA, begin- ning at 9:00 pm. Three classy Jazz vocalists have combined to create a show filled with grandeur and sophistication. MaidenItaly will amaze audiences throughout the United States with their raw vocal talent, elegance and Mediterranean beauty, which conveys the true Italian flair. You will find yourself immersed in the 1930s charm of Italian music, featuring close harmony vocals and an old- time brass ensemble. Fascinating rhythms and elaborate arrangements will summon the big bands of the era. The evening will take you back in time across Italian swing, melodic ballads and a unique chance to dance the night away. Special guests: Marco Pignataro on tenor sax and Jeff Galindo on trombone. Gian Faraone, "The Crooner of Little Italy in Boston" will be closing the night with the signature sounds of the great- est voices of the 20 th century, from Pavarotti to Sinatra. Gian's magnificent voice, charm and classic good looks will end the evening with a real Italian-American touch. For further information or to purchase tickets log on to www. ryles, com. WEST END MUSEUM Exhibit Revisits 19 th Century's Most Infamous.Murder, Trial & Execution Highlights Long-Debated Legalities & Questionable Conviction The 1849 murder of George Parkman in Boston stands as the most sensa- tional case of its time, and the pros- ecution of John Webster is often described as the O.J. Simpson trial of the 19 th century. This case had it all: a grisly murder, a wealthy victim, a respected suspect, a dubious lead wit- ness and unorthodox court proceed- ings. Nearly 60,000 spectators were ushered through the Boston court- room in 10-minute intervals. An all- out media blitz ensued, including journalists from Europe. Ultimately, the ease spawned books, documentaries and even an iPhone app. To this day -- more than 160 years later -- Webster's guilt is debated. The Parkman-Webster Murder Case exhibit traces the entire timeline of the case from Parkman's disappearance in the West End to Webster's trial and execution at the Leverett Street jail. The forensics of the case -- one of the first trials to allow scientific evidence as testimony, and the first to allow dental evidence -- are explored along with a brief history of the "Spunkers Club," a secret group of medical students and future dignitaries including founders of MGH and Harvard Medical School, that procured dead bodies for anatomical dissection. The lawyers and judges are examined, as are problematic issues with the case and oddities surrounding the trial. The trial is legally historic for Chief Justice Lemuel Shaw's charge to the jury, now known as the "Webster Charge." At the time, the legal standard for a capital mur- der case was to prove "to an absolute certainty" that the dead body was in fact that of the victim, but Shaw set a new precedent when he instructed the jury that the prosecu- tion only needed to prove this "beyond a reasonable doubt." In his charge, Shaw also defined the difference between murder and manslaughter, the difficulty with eyewitness testimony as alibi, and the legitimacy of circumstantial evidence. Now through December 21 st in the Main Exhibit Hall. The Parkman-Webster Murder Case exhibit is free and open to the public during regular Museum hours. For further information on this event and upcoming eve!Tlks. ],ee..visit. tltLl/./ih_ejtndmuse.ulro._rg ..........